Research

Our Research

Innovation through research is at the heart of everything we do. IGEPS uses rigorous analysis to tackle pervasive and complex problems that impede gender equity in the public sector. We focus on addressing substantive topics targeting underrepresented groups that are beneficial to both scholars and public sector practitioners.

IGEPS also promotes outside work from underrepresented groups to diversify resources used in teaching and practice. By utilizing diverse resources, we can generate more accurate and well-rounded insights, and therefore better effect change. Learn more about our reference tool below.

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    Care in crisis: COVID-19 as a catalyst for universal child care in the United States.

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Equity in Public Administration & Policy

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Care in Crisis: COVID-19 as a Catalyst for Universal Child Care in the United States (2020)

Abstract: School closings during COVID-19 exposed an under-addressed gender equity issue in the United States: child care in crisis. To better understand the child care crisis in the current U.S. context, we detail how New York City is addressing child care during COVID-19. We then connect the current approaches to the Lanham Act that was instituted during WWII as a historical parallel. Ultimately, we argue for the adoption of a universal system that is affordable, high-quality, federally-funded with local involvement and discretion, and flexible for primary caregivers seeking care support. This potential system builds on current congressional proposals and should take into account the challenges primary caregivers face in order to disrupt gender imbalances in care, and in turn, produce greater gender equity. COVID-19 is an opportunity to instill lasting change by improving the current U.S. child care model.

Elias, Nicole M. and D’Agostino, Maria J. (2020). Care in Crisis: COVID-19 as a Catalyst for Universal Child Care in the United States. Administrative Theory & Praxis. https://doi.org/10.1080/10841806.2020.1813456

Changing the Landscape of Public Administration for Women: Organized Efforts to Promote Gender Competency (2020)

Women in public service face some of the most pressing issues in public administration and policy today. For example, the gender pay gap, gender bias, and gender inequity in policy and administrative decision making. The purpose of this chapter is to detail the value of organized efforts to combat gender disparities by promoting gender competency in both MPA education and the public sector workplace. These avenues for change can be instructive for public administration programs, Master of Public Administration (MPA) students, and public servants. We offer practical means of building gender competency, or the knowledge, skills, and abilities utilized in public organizations for the purpose of promoting sex and gender representation.

Elias, Nicole M. and D’Agostino, M. J. (2020). Changing the Landscape of Public Administration for Women: Organized Efforts to Promote Gender Competency. In Slagle, Derek and Adam Williams (Eds.), Public Affairs Practicum. San Diego, CA: Birkdale Publishers.

Characterization of Women in Leadership Positions (2020)

Women were 30% of the labor force in 1950 and 48.6% of the workforce today. Women are also currently outpacing men in the attainment of college degrees – 36% of women aged between 25- 29 years have a bachelor’s degree compared to 28% of males in the same age group and have surpassed men in college graduation rates. Despite these growing numbers, women have yet to reach a critical mass in leadership positions. Women represent less than 5% of CEOs in Fortune 500 companies. Out of 195 state heads around the world, only 15 are currently women. Less than 20% of members of the US Congress are women, and women hold only 21% of US Senate seats. Even in the nonprofit world where more than 75% of all workers and volunteers are women, only 45% of women will go on to secure a top position and only 21% of these CEOs will have access to budgets of $25 million or more (Renock, 2017).

Certainly, women have come a long way since first gaining voting rights in 1920. However, we live in interesting times, and challenges remain. Women continue to be stereotyped as unfit for certain jobs because of biological reasons. Women continue to be subject to issues of the glass ceiling and glass cliffs, and inequities persist as women earn 77 cents to a dollar when compared with their male counterparts. Clearly, we have not achieved gender parity in the workplace. Moreover, leadership continues to be viewed as a masculine trait (Eagly & Karau, 2002). The “think manager think male” paradigm is dominant in organizations, continuing to pose challenges for women who aspire to or are currently in leadership roles (Ryan et al., 2016).

Stivers (1993) argued that “these images not only have masculine features but help to keep in place or bestow political and economic privileges on the bearers of culturally masculine qualities at the expense of those who display culturally feminine ones” (p. 84). Indeed, workplaces in the public sector remain gendered (Connell, 2006; Guy & Newman, 2004; Riccucci, 2009; Sabharwal, 2015) challenging the neutrality of public administration. Although Stivers’ work on gender images in 1993 laid the foundation for feminist theorists in public administration, the questions posed in this chapter are: What are some of the challenges women leaders in public administration encounter? What are the gender differences that persist in the field? The chapter will also discuss the implications of research in gender and leadership on scholarship and practice of public administration. Thus, we provide a detailed narrative based on the characterization of women and leadership in the public administration literature and beyond.

D’Agostino, M.J., Sabharwal, M., & Levine, H. (2020). Characterization of Women in Leadership Positions. In Slagle, Derek and Adam Williams (Eds.), Public Affairs Practicum. San Diego, CA: Birkdale Publishers.

Ethics for Contemporary Bureaucrats: Navigating Constitutional Crossroads (2020)

In the current United States (U.S.) context, we are facing a constitutional crisis with frequent government shutdowns and new debates surrounding immigration, climate change, budgeting practices, and the balance of power. With competing interests, unclear policy, and inconsistent leadership directives, the question becomes: How do contemporary bureaucrats make sense of this ethically turbulent environment? This collection provides a lens for viewing administrative decision-making and behavior from a constitutional basis, as contemporary bureaucrats navigate uncharted territory.

Ethics for Contemporary Bureaucrats is organized around three constitutional values: freedom, property, and social equity. These themes are based on emerging trends in public administration and balanced with traditional ethical models. Each chapter provides an overview of a contemporary ethical issue, identifies key actors, institutions, legal and legislative policy, and offers normative and practical recommendations to address the challenges the issue poses. Rooted in a respected and time-tested intellectual history, this volume speaks to bureaucrats in a modern era of governance. It is ideally suited to educate students, scholars, and public servants on constitutional values and legal precedent as a basis for ethics in the public sector.

Elias, Nicole M. and O’lejarski, Amanda M. (Eds). (2020). Ethics for Contemporary Bureaucrats: Navigating Constitutional Crossroads. New York, NY: Routledge Taylor & Francis Group. ISBN 9780367861902

Gender in Emergency Services: Foundations for Greater Equity in Professional Codes of Ethics. (2020)

Abstract: The lack of gender equity in the public sector is a critical issue, especially for emergency services. We explore the gendered nature of firefighting and policing at both professional and organizational levels. We assess gender equity by asking the following questions: (1) How have understandings of gender in emergency services evolved over time? (2) What are the normative implications of emergency services’ lack of gender equity? We draw from feminist literature to critique the lack of progress and examine firefighting and policing histories along with the professional ethics codes of the U.S. Fire Administration and the International Association of Chiefs of Police. This analysis demonstrates the potential to foster greater gender equity in emergency services and other public organizations by suggesting means of improving ethics codes that serve as foundations for organizational cultures, policies, and practices

Bishu, Sebawit, McCandless, Sean, and Elias, Nicole M. (2020). Gender in Emergency Services: Foundations for Greater Equity in Professional Codes of Ethics. Public Integrity. https://doi.org/10.1080/10999922.2020.1825179

Introduction to the Symposium: Popular Culture, Social Equity, and Public Administration (2020)

Popular culture. It is everywhere—from movies, television, music, and literary works to other vehicles for messaging like social media and celebrity influencers. Popular culture frequently provides messages pertinent to social equity, especially about inequities experienced by historically marginalized groups. This special issue explores pop culture’s social equity messaging in the context of public administration. Despite the ubiquity of popular culture’s artifacts and its messages both about and for public administration, it remains under-examined within public administration scholarship. This special issue is an attempt to bring pop culture topics and applications into the discipline. As a starting point, this collection presents seven manuscripts and two reviews that speak to different forms and analyses of popular culture’s messages about and for social equity in public administration.

McCandless, Sean and Elias, Nicole M. (Symposium Co-Editors). (2020). Introduction to the Symposium: Popular Culture, Social Equity, and Public Administration. Public Integrity. https://doi.org/10.1080/10999922.2020.1837506

Popular Culture Informing Public Administration: Messages and Prospects for Social Equity (2020)

Abstact: In the discipline of public administration, popular culture remains under-examined in scholarship and under-utilized in pedagogy. However, the field would benefit from greater integration of popular culture to expand understandings of governance, especially in that it provides important representations of and messaging about some of today’s most pressing social equity issues. To contextualize popular culture in public administration, we use critical discourse analysis as a frame to demonstrate how popular culture can inform public administration, especially regarding social equity. We argue that popular culture should be more extensively covered in public administration, because it offers a lens for better understanding intersections of power, equity, and ethics in government.

McCandless, Sean and Elias, Nicole M. (2020). Popular Culture Informing Public Administration: Messages and Prospects for Social Equity. Public Integrity. https://doi.org/10.1080/10999922.2020.1837505

Women Governing: A Global Perspective (2018)

Abstact: Governing in a Global World captures the panorama of women governing around the world. Even though the modern era marks history’s greatest advancements for women, worldwide they hold fewer than 30 percent of decision-making positions in government and are often missing from negotiating tables where policies are made and conflicts resolved. The opening chapters present trends and context for studying women in public service by focusing on path-setters across the globe, the status of women in the world’s executive and legislative bodies, and their participation in public service across several nations. Later chapters examine power, leadership, and representation of women in public service, with several chapters looking at women governing from a regional perspective in the Middle East, Sub Sahara Africa, Latin America, and China. The final chapter presents empirical evidence that shows how policies to increase women’s representation in the public arena reduce gender inequality more than any other policy intervention. Taken together, the chapters illustrate the worldwide importance of, and challenges to, promoting gender equality and women governing.

D’Agostino, M.J. (2018). Women Governing: A Global Perspective, edited with Marilyn Rubin, New York: Routledge.

A Conceptual Content Analysis of 75 Years of Diversity Research in Public Administration (2016)

Abstract: Diversity is an important facet of public administration, thus it is important to take stock and examine how the discipline has evolved in response to questions of representative democracy, social equity, and diversity. This article assesses the state-of-the-field by addressing the following question: How has research on diversity in the field of public administration progressed over time? Specifically, we seek to examine how the focus of diversity has transformed over time and the way the field has responded to half a century of legislation and policies aimed at both promoting equality and embracing difference. We utilize a conceptual content analysis approach to examine articles published on diversity in seven key public administration journals since 1940. The implications of this study are of great importance given that diversity in the workplace is a central issue for modern public management.

Sabharwal, M., Levine, H. & D’Agostino, M.J. (2016). A Conceptual Content Analysis of 75 Years of Diversity Research in Public Administration, Review of Public Personnel Administration, 38(2), 248-267. https://doi.org/10.1177/0734371X16671368

Changing the Narrative: The Difference Women Make in Public Administration (2016)

Abstract: The dominant narrative about women’s progress in public administration focuses on identifying the obstacles to that progress and how to overcome them. But to make real progress toward gender equality and social justice, we must rethink our entire approach to research. Understanding the difference women make via narrative inquiry is a necessary change to the prevailing dialectic.

D’Agostino, M.J. (2016). A Narrative Approach to Understanding the Difference Women Make. Administration and Society, Women in Public Administration Symposium, 49(1), 9-19. https://doi.org/10.1177/0095399716641986

The Difference That Women Make: Government Performance and Women-Led Agencies (2015)

Abstract: The dominant narrative about women’s progress in public administration focuses on identifying the obstacles to that progress and how to overcome them. But to make real progress toward gender equality and social justice, we must rethink our entire approach to research. Understanding the difference women make via narrative inquiry is a necessary change to the prevailing dialectic.

D’Agostino, M.J. (2015). The Difference that Women Make: Government Performance and Women-Led Agencies, Administration & Society, 47(5), 532-548. https://doi.org/10.1177/0095399714548267

Merit, Luck, and Historical Recognition: A More Comprehensive Treatment of Justice in Public Administration (2014)

John Rawls’ A Theory of Justice has served as an important basis for theorizing merit, deservedness, and fairness, and in turn, continues to influence the intellectual development of many disciplines, including political thought, public administration, and the practical application of democratic governance. Yet, Rawls’ failure to account for luck and historical difference renders his work an incomplete framework for pursing the end of justice in public administration. We argue for a more comprehensive treatment of merit, deservedness, and fairness, one that incorporates luck and takes into account social values rooted in historical preference and identity.

Elias, Nicole M. Rishel and Jensen, Courtney E. (2014). Merit, Luck, and Historical Recognition: A More Comprehensive Treatment of Justice in Public Administration. Public Administration Quarterly, 38 (4), 466-487. http://www.jstor.org/stable/24372061

Shifting Diversity Perspectives and New Avenues for Representative Bureaucracy (2013)

This work explores the meaning of diversity for bureaucratic representation. In light of the United States becoming an increasingly racially and ethnically diverse society, attitudes and approaches toward diversity are likewise shifting. It is important to consider the way we think about and talk about diverse representation, which in turn, contributes to different actions and policies within federal agencies. To evaluate this process of meaning-making, I analyze federal policy seeking to increase representation in the following Executive Orders: 13078, 13163, 13171, 13518, 13548, and 13585. Prime emphasis is devoted to the most recent and comprehensive, Executive Order 13583: Establishing a Coordinated Government-wide Initiative to Promote Diversity and Inclusion in the Federal Workforce issued on August 18, 2011 and the Government-wide Diversity and Inclusion Strategic Plan. This research demonstrates significant implications for management and governance, particularly in the text, discursive practice, and social practice surrounding the meaning of “diversity” purported for the federal bureaucracy.

Elias, Nicole M. Rishel. (2013). Shifting Diversity Perspectives and New Avenues for Representative Bureaucracy. Public Administration Quarterly, 37 (3), 331-373. http://www.jstor.org/stable/24372111

Challenging Technicism: Space for the Individual Bureaucrat in Public Administration Theory and Practice. (2012)

Rishel, Nicole M. (2012). Challenging Technicism: Space for the Individual Bureaucrat in Public Administration Theory and Practice. Administrative Theory & Praxis, 34 (2), 279-286. https://doi.org/10.2753/atp1084-1806340208

The Career progression of women in state government agencies (2010)

The purpose of this paper is to empirically examine the impact of the utilization of organizational practices on the career progression of women to executive positions in state‐level government organizations in the USA.

D’Agostino, M.J. & Levine, H. (2010) The Career progression of women in state government agencies. Gender in Management: An International Journal, 25(1), 22-36.


Diversity, Equity, & Inclusion in the Workplace

group of people sitting indoors
Organizational Practices and Second-Generation Gender Bias: A Qualitative Inquiry into the Career Progression of U.S. State-Level Managers (2022)

Ely and Meyerson’s gendered organizations framework reconceptualizes traditional gender differences defined by biology and lack of structural opportunities, to a complex set of social relations in the workplace. We apply this framework to second-generation gender bias to further understand impediments to women’s career progression in the public sector workplace. In-depth interviews of state-level administrators in U.S. public sector agencies indicate that “narratives” perpetuate second-generation gender bias that is deeply ingrained in organizational practices and policies, especially for women and women of color. This framework can be applied to future studies examining the gendered nature of organizations in different workplace settings. Moving beyond already identified barriers, this study offers a comprehensive framework to understand how second-generation gender bias is central to long-standing workplace inequities.

D’Agostino M, Levine H, Sabharwal M, Johnson-Manning AC. Organizational Practices and Second-Generation Gender Bias: A Qualitative Inquiry into the Career Progression of U.S. State-Level Managers. The American Review of Public Administration. March 2022.

Gender in Negotiation: Preparing Public Administrators for the 21st Century Workplace (2019)

Abstract: This exploratory study questions whether Master of Public Administration programs prepare future public administrators to how gender plays out in negotiations that occur in organizations. Negotiated Order and Second-Generation Bias perspectives provide the theoretical basis to understand that negotiations in organizations may privilege masculine practices. In light of this gender leaning, the classroom is a necessary incubator for understanding gender differences in negotiation. Curricula and survey response data retrieved from NASPAA accredited MPA programs suggest that gender in negotiation is not being addressed in the MPA classroom. Public managers must negotiate for scarce organizational resources including salary, promotion, and other workplace capital. Recognizing that gender in negotiation remains hidden under the shadow of second-generation bias is the first step to the success of future public administrators. We must begin to educate our future public managers with a distinctive negotiation skillset as they navigate the 21st century workplace.

D’Agostino, M.J, Sabharwal, M. and Levine, H. (2019) Gender in negotiation: Preparing public administrators for the 21st century workplace, Journal of Public Affairs Education. https://doi.org/10.1080/15236803.2019.1579594

Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Queer (LGBTQ+) Workplace Policy. (2019)

Elias, Nicole M. (2019) Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Queer (LGBTQ+) Workplace Policy. In: Farazmand A. (Ed.). Global Encyclopedia of Public Administration, Public Policy, and Governance. Springer International Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-31816-5_2396-1

Improving Transgender Policy for a More Equitable Workplace (2018)

Abstract: Sex and gender categories have become more fluid in recent years. With evolving understandings of sexual orientation and gender identity, public administrators are confronted with questions of how to craft policy and make decisions based on new conceptions of sex and gender for transgender employees. Policy and practice is especially challenging in the workplace where sex and gender encompass both personal and professional dimensions. Within the public sector, the federal government is recognized as a leader on these issues, and this work examines federal transgender policy to answer the following questions: 1) how are federal agencies addressing transgender issues in the workplace through formal policy? and 2) what can be done to improve future transgender policy? To gain a better understanding of what constitutes an effective transgender workplace policy, we conducted a qualitative content analysis of nine transgender plans from the following federal agencies: Consumer Financial Protection Bureau, Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, Internal Revenue Service, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, United States Office of Special Counsel, United States Department of Interior, United States Department of Labor, United States Environmental Protection Agency, and United States Office of Personnel Management. Our analysis includes the identification of major themes within the nine policy documents. From this analysis, we propose best practices and future policy directions, as well as suggest ways of expanding the limited scholarship on transgender issues in the public sector.

Elias, Nicole M., Johnson, Rana, Ovando, Daniel, and Ramirez, Julia. (Fall 2017/Spring 2018). Improving Transgender Policy for a More Equitable Workplace. Journal of Public Management & Social Policy, 24(2), 53-81. https://digitalscholarship.tsu.edu/jpmsp/vol24/iss2/7/

Inclusive Work Practices: Turnover Intentions Among LGBT Employees of the U.S. Federal Government (2018)

Abstract: The federal government lags behind in progressive civil rights policies in regard to universal workplace antidiscrimination laws for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) Americans. The slow progress matters to inclusionary workplace practices and the theory and practice of public administration generally, as recognition of LGBT rights and protection are constitutive of representative bureaucracy and promoting social equity. This study examines the turnover intention rates of self-identified LGBT employees in the U.S. federal government. Using the Office of Personnel Management’s inclusion quotient (IQ), and 2015 Federal Employee Viewpoint Survey (FEVS), we identify links in the relationships between workplace inclusion and turnover outcomes among LGBT individuals. We also examine the impact of agency type on LGBT turnover rates based on Lowi’s agency classification type. Key findings suggest that LGBT employees express higher turnover intentions than those that identify as heterosexuals/straight, and LGBT employees who perceive their agencies as redistributive or communal are less likely to experience turnover intentions. However, an open and supportive workplace environment had a positive impact on turnover, suggesting that to implement effective structural change in an organization’s culture of inclusion, public sector managers must do more than merely “talk the talk.” This finding is also suggestive of LGBT employees’ desire to avoid the stigma of being LGBT and hide their identities. Institutions must heed the invisible and visible identities of their employees to be truly inclusive. Workplace practices that acknowledge the invisible and visible identities of their employees are a positive step toward real workplace inclusion.

Sabharwal, M., Levine, H., D’Agostino, M.J., & Nguyen, T. (2018). Inclusive Work Practices: Turnover Intentions Among LGBT Employees of the U.S. Federal Government. The American Review of Public Administration. https://doi.org/10.1177/0275074018817376

Why U.S. Government Agencies Need Comprehensive Policies for Employees with Various Gender Identities (2018)

Sex and gender identities are becoming increasingly complex in America, creating new challenges for public administrative agencies. So far, the vast majority of U.S. federal agencies lack comprehensive transgender employee policies – which are currently in place for only nine of approximately 235 federal agencies (including sub-agencies). Yet as the workforce evolves, federal employment policy must accommodate the needs of employees who do not fit traditional sex and gender categories – and particular attention needs to be paid to formulating policies specifying the responsibilities of employers when their employees undergo transitions meant to shift their anatomy or appearance to align with their gender identity.

Elias, Nicole M. (2018). Why U.S. Government Agencies Need Comprehensive Policies for Employees with Various Gender Identities. Policy Brief. Scholars Strategy Network. https://scholars.org/contribution/why-us-government-agencies-need-comprehensive-policies-employees-various-gender

Beyond the Lavender Scare: LGBT and Heterosexual Employees in the Federal Workplace (2017)

Abstract: Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) identities within the workplace have recently gained greater attention as significant demographic categories. A key question that emerges from the limited scholarship on LGBT employment in the federal government is whether there is a distinction between the experiences of employees within federal security agencies, defined here as the five major agencies that provide civilian support to the defense and military structures of the United States, and employees of other federal agencies. Using data from the 2013 Employee Viewpoint Survey, this article addresses the following questions: How does sexual orientation and/or gender identity as self-reported in the 2013 EVS impact employee perceptions of personal safety and security, job satisfaction, and diversity issues, and how do these perceptions vary between employees of the major security agencies and other federal agencies? The article shows that across the federal government employees are reasonably satisfied with diversity issues in the workplace, with no appreciable difference between those in security and nonsecurity agencies. However, current programs and policies intended to foster and institutionalize diversity are viewed as ineffective and should be improved through new policies and programs.

Federman, Peter S. and Elias, Nicole M. Rishel. (2017). Beyond the Lavender Scare: LGBT and Heterosexual Employees in the Federal Workplace. Public Integrity, 19 (1), 22-40. https://doi.org/10.1080/10999922.2016.1200410

Women in the Public Sector: Getting Creative with Networking and Mentoring (2017)

In academia, we often think of networking and mentoring activity as a means to an end. Networking and mentoring can be exciting and considered beneficial in helping to produce opportunities for new research projects, collaborative events, and personal/professional development. Alternatively, these practices could be seen as unavoidable for the tenure file or “necessary evils” to satisfy service requirements or some other obligation. Regardless of your view or the external demands placed on your networking and mentoring activity, we find that networking and mentoring can be positive and rewarding if you are able to be a bit creative and devote some thought and energy to these activities. We are able to do this through the organization we created, Women in the Public Sector at John Jay College (WPS). The purpose of this reflection is to prompt you to think creatively about these seemingly mundane professional activities by detailing our networking and mentoring experiences with WPS.

Elias, Nicole M. Rishel and D’Agostino, Maria J. (2017). Women in the Public Sector: Getting Creative with Networking and Mentoring. In Zavattaro, Staci and Orr, Shannon (Eds.), Reflections on Academic Lives: Identities, Struggles, and Triumphs in Graduate School and Beyond. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan.

Making Sense of Women’s Career Progression: Utilization of Work/Life Practices in State Government Agencies (2011)

In an effort to make sense of the work/life balance quandary, this article discusses preliminary results of a broader research project (D‘Agostino and Levine 2009) empirically examining the utilization of work/life practices by women in state-level government in the United States.. The purpose of this research is to examine whether women‘s utilization of work/life practices contributes to their career progression. Therefore, the central research question examines, what is the impact of work/life utilization practices on women’s career progression? Findings indicate that women who have reached executive level positions are more likely to utilize specific practices, such as flexible hours, than others, such as working part time or childcare reimbursement. Furthermore, work/life policies and practices should be framed and marketed to society in general in order to encourage utilization.

Maria D’Agostino. (2011). Making Sense of Women’s Career Progression: Utilization of Work/Life Practices in State Government Agencies. Public Administration and Management, 16(1), 95–.


Sexual Orientation, Gender Identity, & Expression

couple holding hands in front of a gay pride flag
Rainbow Research: Challenges and Recommendations for Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity and Expression (SOGIE) Survey Design (2022)

A growing number of people around the world identify, in some way, as Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Queer (LGBTQ+); yet, these voices are noticeably absent from nonprofit research. To address issues of equity and the historic marginalization of LGBTQ+ people both societally and in the nonprofit sector, this manuscript seeks to answer the following questions: Why is it important to include sexual orientation and gender identity and expression (SOGIE) survey questions in nonprofit surveys? What are best practices for including SOGIE survey questions in nonprofit research? We present LGBTQ+ inclusive research strategies and suggested questions for inclusive SOGIE survey design. Though this article focuses primarily on surveying LGBTQ+ populations, it can also be instructive for general population surveys.

Meyer, S.J., Elias, N.M. Rainbow Research: Challenges and Recommendations for Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity and Expression (SOGIE) Survey Design. Voluntas (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11266-021-00436-5

Transgender and Gender Non-Binary Healthcare Coverage in State Medicaid Programs: Recommendations for More Equitable Approaches (2021)

Transgender and gender non-binary (TGNB) individuals face discrimination in healthcare settings and barriers to healthcare access, resulting in health disparities. These inequities are compounded by the intersection of lower socioeconomic status and geography. To understand the differences in how states provide healthcare to TGNB individuals in poverty, we ask: What are state Medicaid programs offering TGNB residents, and how can coverage be more equitable across jurisdictions? To answer these questions, we examine medical services covered by 15 diverse Medicaid programs and compare them to the services recommended by the World Professional Association for Transgender Health (WPATH). Unsurprisingly, the analysis reveals inconsistent TGNB health coverage across states. While some states include coverage for TGNB-related care, some do not, and others place access to services in the hands of medical providers. These coverage disparities leave many TGNB Medicaid recipients across the U.S. without coverage for medically necessary services, prompting equity questions for both research and practice.

Robin J. Kempf, Nicole M. Elias and Alonso J. Rubin-DeSimone
JHHSA, Vol. 44 No. 1, 86-108 (2021)
https://doi.org/10.37808/jhhsa.44.1.5

Beyond Bostock: Implications for LGBTQ+ Theory and Practice (2021)

Abstract: The recent U.S. Supreme Court ruling in Bostock v. Clayton County is a landmark piece of case law that offers fundamental rights to LGBT persons. This essay reflects on how this case arrived at the Supreme Court and its implications for theory and praxis. The overall conclusion is that cautious optimism is warranted.

McCandless, Sean and Elias, Nicole M. (2021). Beyond Bostock: Implications for LGBTQ+ Theory and Practice. Invited Essay. Administrative Theory & Praxis. https://doi.org/10.1080/10841806.2020.1840903

LGBTQ+ Civil Rights: Local Government Efforts in a Volatile Era (2020)

Abstract: LGBTQ+ issues at the local level pose some of the most pressing civil rights challenges in the current U.S. context. This analysis provides insight into what is taking place in major municipalities and how these efforts can be improved to bolster equity and civil rights for LGBTQ+ populations. At a time when identity, language, and public sector values are inherently intertwined and constantly changing, the following question is ripe for analysis: how are major U.S. municipalities addressing the civil rights needs of the LGBTQ+ population? To answer this question, an analysis of government websites from the top 10 U.S. cities by population is conducted, examining the policies, programs, and services that municipalities offer LGBTQ+ residents and the language used to frame these policies, programs, and services as expressions of power, representations of identity, and the website presentation itself.

Elias, Nicole M. (2020). LGBTQ+ Civil Rights: Local Government Efforts in a Volatile Era. Public Administration Review. https://doi-org.ez.lib.jjay.cuny.edu/10.1111/puar.13188

Non-binary Gender Identity: Challenging Public Values and Reshaping Institutions (2020)

Non-binary gender identity has recently become more widely known and engrained in the public sector. Individuals who identify as non-binary see themselves outside of the traditional male-female system that is the foundation for economic, social, and political institutions. The traditional gender binary system can be discriminatory and exclusive for non-binary individuals. Arguments for adopting inclusive gender identity policy and practice are often rooted in social equity. The Constitution provides a foundation to increase social equity for non-binary gender identity policy and administrative practice. As public administrators take an oath to uphold the values of the Constitution, this expanded treatment of gender equity is highly relevant to understanding our foundational public values and reshaping institutions that remain largely unquestioned. Non-binary identities are increasingly becoming normalized and accepted, and while this is encouraging, it is not enough. This chapter presents a normative argument for adopting non-binary gender policy and practice based on social equity regime values. Then, it offers practical recommendations for non-binary gender identity state-issued identity documents. Altering our very definition of gender is no easy task, especially because gender is an organizing societal structure. Ultimately, non-binary gender inclusion necessitates a serious rethinking of our public values and restructuring of our most fundamental institutions of governance.

Elias, Nicole M. and Saffran, Gwendolyn. Non-binary Gender Identity: Challenging Public Values and Reshaping Institutions. In Elias, Nicole M. and O’lejarski, Amanda M. (Eds). (2020). Ethics for Contemporary Bureaucrats: Navigating Constitutional Crossroads. New York, NY: Routledge Taylor & Francis Group. ISBN 9780367861902

A Third Option: Understanding and Assessing Non-Binary Gender Policies in the United States (2020)

Abstract: Our fundamental understandings and treatments of gender and gender identity within the United States are evolving. Recently, a few countries and several U.S. states have moved away from the binary categories of male and female to include a non-binary gender option for official state documents. This third, gender-neutral option, is usually represented as “X” where “M” for male and “F” for female traditionally appeared. The purpose of this study is twofold; first, to utilize Iris Marion Young’s theory of oppression to help contextualize the historical oppression of non-binary gender identity recognition by the State, and second, to analyze recent efforts by U.S. states to include non-binary gender categories. Using Young’s theory for normative explanation along with the Open Society Foundations’ (OSF) practical recommendations, we present a simple administrative framework for comparing proposed, adopted, and enacted non-binary gender policies across the United States. Tying each OSF best practice to one of Young’s faces of oppression, we are able to assess each law or policies’ effectiveness in dismantling the oppressive binary constructs of society.

Elias, Nicole M. and Colvin, Roddrick. (2020). A Third Option: Understanding and Assessing Non-Binary Gender Policies in the United States. Administrative Theory & Praxis, 42:2, 191-211. https://doi.org/10.1080/10841806.2019.1659046

Transgender and Non-Binary Gender Policy in the Public Sector (2019)

Our understanding and treatment of gender in the United States has evolved significantly over the past four decades. Transgender individuals in the current U.S. context enjoy more rights and protections than they have in the past; yet, room for progress remains. Moving beyond the traditional male–female binary, an unprecedented number of people now identify as transgender and nonbinary. Transgender identities are at the forefront of gender policy, prompting responses from public agencies at the local, state, and federal levels. Because transgender individuals face increased rates of discrimination, violence, and physical and mental health challenges, compared to their cisgender counterparts, new gender policy often affords legal protections as well as identity-affirming practices such as legal name and gender marker changes on government documents. These rights come from legal decisions, legislation, and administrative agency policies. Despite these victories, recent government action targeting the transgender population threatens the progress that has been made. This underscores the importance of comprehensive policies and education about transgender identities to protect the rights of transgender people.

Elias, Nicole M. (2019). Transgender and Non-Binary Gender Policy in the Public Sector. In: Haider-Markel, Don (Ed). Oxford Encyclopedia of Politics. Oxford University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/acrefore/9780190228637.013.1168

Constructing and Implementing Transgender Policy for Public Administration (2017)

Abstract: Sex and gender are increasingly complex topics that prompt new policy and administrative responses within public agencies. As the federal workforce evolves, federal employment policy must accommodate the needs of employees who do not fit traditional sex/gender categories. One emerging area of policy targets transgender employees, particularly policy that guides the employer response throughout the transitioning process. This research seeks to answer the following questions: How can transitioning policy and implementation within federal agencies affect employees? and How should transitioning policy be crafted and implemented? This work addresses organizational behavior and management issues by presenting a successful case of a workplace transition. Interviews of an administrator guiding the transitioning process and one of the first federal employees to complete a transition while in a federal field office are conducted. Ultimately, this research explores challenges with emergent policy and suggests avenues for designing and enacting future transitioning policy.

Elias, Nicole M. Rishel. (2017). Constructing and Implementing Transgender Policy for Public Administration. Administration & Society, 49 (1), 20-47. https://doi.org/10.1177/0095399716684888

Transgender Rights and Politics: Groups, Issue Framing, and Policy Adoption, Public Integrity (2017)

Elias, Nicole M. (2017). Transgender Rights and Politics: Groups, Issue Framing, and Policy Adoption, Public Integrity, 20:6, 640-644. https://doi.org/10.1080/10999922.2017.1399766


Gender Equity Education

man in beige blazer holding tablet computer
 #MeToo in Academia: Understanding and Addressing Pervasive Challenges (2020)

D’Agostino, Maria J. and Elias, Nicole M. (Symposium Co-Editors). (2020). #MeToo in Academia: Understanding and Addressing Pervasive Challenges. Viewpoint Symposium in Public Administration Review. https://doi.org/10.1111/puar.13318

Gender Competency in Public Administration Education (2019)

Abstract: Sex and gender are evolving identity categories with emergent public policy and administration needs. To respond to the diverse landscape of sex and gender issues in the public sector, greater competency is needed. This research will contribute to the body of work on sex and gender in public administration by asking the following questions: (a) what do graduate students in Master of Public Administration (MPA) programs know about gender competency, (b) have graduate students learned gender competency in their MPA coursework, and (c) how can gender competency in MPA education be further developed and promoted? This study provides a critical analysis of one MPA program, at John Jay College, City University of New York, to begin this line of research. Our e-survey results of a non-random sample of John Jay MPA students demonstrate that many students do not learn about gender competency through their MPA education and that gender competency skills otherwise obtained are limited. To address this, we emphasize the need for incorporating gender competency into MPA education as the first step in equipping future practitioners with skills to promote gender competency in public policy, administrative decision making, and workplace culture. We provide practical means of achieving greater gender competency in MPA curricula and programming and articulate the importance of expanding this research to other MPA programs, MPA faculty and directors, and geographic regions.

Elias, Nicole M. and D’Agostino, Maria J. (2019). Gender Competency in Public Administration Education. Teaching Public Administration, 37(2), 218–233. https://doi.org/10.1177/0144739419840766

The Importance of Engaging Students on Public Assistance: New Insights and Recommendations for Practice (2019)

Abstract: Student engagement in institutions of higher education has become a central priority for educators and administrators. What “student engagement” means for a diverse student body is an important question for public institutions with justice-related missions. As social welfare policy shifts to allow more recipients of public assistance access to higher education, research regarding their engagement experiences remains scarce. To support a socioeconomically diverse student body, consistent with the Network of Schools of Public Policy, Affairs, and Administration (NASPAA) standards, this project explores the nature of engagement among student recipients of public assistance by asking the following research questions: what forms of engagement with students on public assistance take place? Why is engaging students on public assistance important? How can we foster greater engagement with students on public assistance? To answer these questions, student and faculty focus groups are conducted. From this analysis, we highlight normative implications of engaging a socioeconomically diverse student population and present recommendations for fostering greater engagement.

Elias, Nicole M. and Marrin, Madeleine. (2019). The Importance of Engaging Students on Public Assistance: New Insights and Recommendations for Practice. Teaching Public Administration, 37(3), 341–364. https://doi.org/10.1177/0144739419851149

Gender Differences in the Leadership Styles of MPA Directors (2017)

Abstract: A growing body of literature has documented leadership styles by gender. This study examines if directors of Master of Public Administration (MPA) programs accredited by the Network of Schools of Public Policy, Affairs, and Administration exhibit gender differences in leadership styles. Such differences may affect the implementation of public administration and how effective MPA directors are in achieving positive outcomes. Using a mixed methods approach—specifically, exploratory sequential design utilizing qualitative data and analysis, followed by a quantitative survey—we find that there are some gendered differences among public administration directors. In particular, we find that women directors are significantly more likely than their male counterparts to exhibit traits that resemble transformational leaders. However, we also find that male and female directors converge in terms of other styles of leadership.

Sabharwal, M., Levine, H., D’Agostino, M.J. (2017). Gender Differences in the Leadership Styles of MPA Directors, Journal of Public Affairs Education, 23 (3), 869– 884. https://doi.org/10.1080/15236803.2017.12002293

Our Books & Symposia

Books


Symposia

Implications of the #MeToo Movement for Academia: A Bully Pulpit Symposium in Public Administration Review.

The #MeToo movement, which has rocked politics, media, business and entertainment, is exploding with full force in academia. Recently, Karen Kelsky conducted a crowd sourced survey of sexual harassment in the academy that documents more than 2400 cases. It is important to contextualize #MeToo within the academic community.

Contemporary Theories of Women and Gendered Public Administration and Policy. Administrative Theory & Praxis.

The theoretical treatment of sex and gender in public administration and policy pose challenging questions that deserve greater attention. In the history of the field, only three symposia focus on women in the public sector: Nesta Galllas’s (1976) Public Administration Review; Maria D’Agostino and Nicole Elias’s (2017) Administration & Society; and Megan Hatch’s forthcoming symposium in the Journal of Public Affairs Education. These symposia provide a starting point for bringing sex and gender into mainstream public administration literature. Likewise, this Virtual Special Issue is a promising next step for increasing scholarly attention on sex and gender issues in public administration theory.

The Future of Women in Public Administration. Administration & Society.

The first symposium on women in public administration was published in 1976 and focused on three central topics: discrimination against, underrepresentation of, and underutilization of women in public service. Analyses of why conditions of discrimination and underutilization existed, as well as remedies to these challenges, were the crux of the 1976 symposium. Over four decades later, these issues are still pressing and continue to dominate the conversation surrounding women in public administration in the United States. The renewed and continued focus on equal pay, paid family leave, the absence of women in key leadership positions, women’s health care options, and reproductive rights remain center stage in the national policy arena, including the presidential debates.

IGEPS – AWPA Reference Tool

About the Tool:

In partnership with Academic Women in Public Administration (AWPA), we developed a reference tool to diversify resources used in the teaching and practice of public service. This tool promotes work authored by or addressing individuals whose perspectives have not been historically or widely embraced in the literature and teaching of public administration and public policy; including, SOGIE (sexual orientation, gender identity, and expression), racial, ethnic, religious, economic, and more identities.

↓ Explore the tool below

Help us build the tool:

We welcome outside submissions to further diversify the tool’s resources. If you have a resource that is related to public administration and public policy and is either authored by an underrepresented group or targets one, please consider submitting by clicking the button below for our review. The submission process is quick and easy.

Manuscript TitleAbstractKeywordsLinkdoc_categories_hfilter
A conceptual content analysis of 75 years of diversity research in public administration

Diversity is an important facet of public administration, thus it is important to take stock and examine how the discipline has evolved in response to questions of representative democracy, social equity, and diversity. This article assesses the state-of-the-field by addressing the following question: How has research on diversity in the field of public administration progressed over time? Specifically, we seek to examine how the focus of diversity has transformed over time and the way the field has responded to half a century of legislation and policies aimed at both promoting equality and embracing difference. We utilize a conceptual content analysis approach to examine articles published on diversity in seven key public administration journals since 1940. The implications of this study are of great importance given that diversity in the workplace is a central issue for modern public management.

, , , , ethics leadership pa-theory public-policy social-equity
A field experiment of the impact of body-worn cameras (BWCs) on police officer behavior and perceptions

Amidst the backdrop of considerable citizen unrest in the U.S. stemming from perceived injustices within police-citizen interactions in recent years, many government leaders have relied on the use of body-worn cameras as a means of improving citizen relations. The promise of body-worn cameras is that they might improve officer and citizen behavior given the possibility of retrospective and independent determinations of the appropriateness of behaviors which occur within police-citizen encounters. While the emerging evaluation evidence of their usefulness have been generally promising, overall determinations remain incomplete. Using a partial randomized experimental design, this study evaluated the impact of a test pilot program of body-worn camera use by the Hallandale Beach, Florida Police Department in the U.S. to determine their impact on police officer behavior and perceptions. Findings revealed that officers with BWCs 1) relied on less intrusive methods to resolve incidents, 2) continued to be active rather than abstaining from community contact, and 3) officer perceptions of the usefulness of BWCs remained pessimistic. Implications for policy and future research are discussed. •Officers with BWCs relied on less intrusive methods to resolve incidents, namely fewer arrests and greater citations.•Officers continued to be active rather than abstaining from community contact.•Officer perceptions of the usefulness of BWCs remained pessimistic following BWC use.

, , citizen-interactions police-behavior relations
A grounded theory for building ethnically bridging social capital in voluntary organizations

The study of diversity in nonprofit organizations is at a nascent stage. Using a grounded theory process centering on the racial composition of Girl Scout troop members and volunteers, this study proposes a two-pronged theory of diversity in voluntary organizations. Building upon Adler and Kwon’s three aspects of social capital—opportunity, motivation, and ability—the study concludes that even when sufficient opportunity and mission-based motivation exists, social capital of the bridging type will likely be insufficient to sustain interactions among diverse members. To remedy this problem, the theory suggests that a voluntary organization can first rely upon the bonding type of social capital to increase representational diversity, then structure mission-relevant interactions among diverse members to create bridging social capital, and sustain pluralistic diversity. New directions for research and practice are also discussed, with the theory indicating that many nonprofits possess characteristics favoring the creation of bridging social capital.

org-theory
A long road: Patterns and prospects for social equity, diversity, and inclusion in public administration

Public Administration, the field’s oldest journal, is now 100 years old. Despite this centenary, it has only been relatively recently that scholars have examined questions of: (1) how diverse, equitable, and inclusive the field is; (2) how oppressive administrative structures marginalize groups; and (3) what principles of diversity, equity, and inclusion (DEI) mean globally. We seek to contribute to this conversation by reflecting on what is currently known about answers to these questions, especially from global perspectives. We do this by presenting five purposively selected vignettes, each on some dimension of DEI. We frame and analyze these vignettes using Gooden’s “name, blame, and claim” framework. Reflections are offered regarding how the field can better center and achieve DEI.

, , , , , equity gender-equity pa-theory public-administration social-equity women
A New Kind of Public Service Professional: Possessing Cultural Competency, Awareness, Knowledge, and Skills

This chapter discusses the importance of moving diversity management’s use of cultural competency in the delivery of public programs and public agency services from the conceptual and unconnected to a legitimate theoretical framework and model. Specifically, this chapter calls for a new kind of public agency service professional who possesses explicit cultural competency awareness, knowledge, and skills to work with racial/ethnic and cultural/linguistic groups in public administration and in the public agency service delivery process. The chapter concludes by noting the need for a cultural competency model that would integrate and transform cultural awareness and cultural knowledge about individuals and groups into culturally specific skills, practices, standards, and policies to increase the quality and effectiveness of public agency services and programs.

, , , , , citizen-interactions cultural-competency equity pa-theory public-policy racial-equity
A Paper Series Celebrating the 50 th Anniversary of American Women: Report of the President’s Commission on the Status of Women

General Description:
This paper describes the New Mexico Pay Equity Initiative, which wasinstituted by Governor Bill Richardson’s administration over a two year period (2009-2011). TheInitiative built on recommendations from an Equal Pay Task Force created by the New MexicoState legislature in 2003, and a subsequent task force created by the governor in 2008. Thepaper discusses the rationale, policies, methodology and outcomes of the initiative, highlightingit as one way to serve the goal of achieving pay equity as embodied in the Paycheck Fairness Actand the Fair Pay Act, and also to advance the goal of government accountability andtransparency. Implications for the future development and replication by other entities areincluded.
Women’s Bureau goals addressed
: 1) reflect upon and celebrate the accomplishments of publicpolicies related to women, and 2) highlight present day issues and future DOL policy prioritiesaround women’s rights and opportunities in the workplace.
Importance
: The New Mexico Pay Equity Initiative requiring gender pay equity reports of entities seeking contracts with the state is the only one of its kind in the country . It is asignificant effort, and took two years to implement following earlier task forces and sets of recommendations. It can serve as a template for other government entities is advancing payequity.

, , , , bias eeoc employment equality women
A public ethics approach focused on the lives of diverse LGBTQ homeless youth

How can an ethical-analytical framework focused on social equity help illuminate the challenges faced by lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning (LGBTQ) youth of color, particularly those who are homeless? The purpose of this article is to engage in just such an analysis of the complex analytical and ethical challenges presented by homelessness among LGBTQ youth. The authors take as our point of departure the premise that trans youth who are also visible minorities may be among the most marginal and most likely to experience homelessness and other threats to well-being. The authors argue that society needs to be concerned with the lives of diverse LGBTQ youth, and particularly those navigating multiple, intersecting forms of marginalization, including homelessness, because they present us with a limit situation that demands an ethical response.

, , , current-issues ethics public-policy social-equity
A purple primaries protocol for progressive policy victories in “Deep Red” American states

An interpretive monopoly is a narrative that defines what one must believe or do to maintain status with an ingroup while simultaneously creating a disfavored outgroup. The oppression of gays and lesbians can easily be traced to dominant narratives that function as interpretive monopolies. Because of how gays and lesbians are marginalized by interpretive monopolies, this article looks not only at the narrative communities that support oppressive narratives, but at the institutions that sustain them. Functioning as homogeneous policy networks in America’s “deep red” states, these sustaining institutions have created a political climate in which some interpretive monopolies have become the law of the land. Based on this theoretical approach, a novel solution is proposed: an information communication technology that will facilitate the efficient functionality of expansive heterogeneous policy networks. In the process, a mechanism for changing the outcomes of Tea Party-dominated primary elections emerges as an unintentional by-product.

, public-policy social-equity
A SWOT model of the challenges and benefits of volunteer involvement in US non-profit organizations during times of fiscal stress

As a result of the current fiscal crisis, the US Federal Government is calling on non-profit organisations and communities across the country to contribute their service through volunteering. This study uses qualitative data retrieved from a purposive sample of New York City non-profit administrators to determine the challenges and benefits of volunteer involvement in US non-profit organisations during the economic downturn that began in 2008. Findings conclude that although US Federal Government initiatives, including $50 million of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act allocated to the strengthening communities fund provided non-profits the opportunity to draw
on an influx of a highly skilled pool of volunteers, many non-profits remain underfunded, understaffed and unequipped to make the most of those who are looking to serve.

, , current-issues pa-theory social-equity
A systematic review of the gender pay gap and factors that predict it

This study conducts a systematic review of 98 peer-reviewed journal articles that empirically investigate the presence of the gender pay gap along with factors that espouse it in organizations. The purposes of this study are threefold. First, it aims to explore trends in recurring themes that surface as factors that engender the gender pay gap in the workforce. Second, based on identified themes, the review summarizes and compares the gender pay gap by sector. Finally, the study presents a discussion on how the public sector fairs out in closing the gender pay gap and factors that predict it.

, , , benefits compensation pay women
A tale of two journals: Women’s representation in public administration scholarship

This study examines women’s representation in public administration scholarship by analyzing the research method and the content of 618 articles published in the Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, and the Public Performance and Management Review from 2004 to 2013. Findings indicate that women publish less than men as solo, lead, and top 10 authors in these two journals. The study identifies men’s publishing acceptance of articles using predominantly quantitative methods and women’s publishing acceptance of articles using predominantly qualitative methods. Finally, this study finds that university affiliation may contribute to publishing in one or the other journal under research. This study is suggestive in nature and provides further evidence of the underrepresentation of women in public administration scholarship.

social-equity
Absent inclusion policies: Problems facing homeless trangender youth

Transgender individuals make up a disproportionately high percentage of homeless youth. This is due to conflict with their family, harassment in schools, or negative interactions with child services. In addition to the typical needs of homeless youth, questions arise regarding housing, changing the youth’s name and gender, and access to healthcare. Analysis examines what protections and services subnational governments provide to homeless transgender youth as of 2016. The findings indicate that state and local governments provide most nondiscrimination protections for these youths, with local government outreach programs specializing services for homeless and transgender populations. It is more common for states not to have nondiscrimination policies for the lesbian; gay; bisexual; and transgender community. However, several states have extensive protections for transgender individuals to remove discriminatory practices that contribute to homelessness, such as in housing or foster care. Findings also show that more than 350 municipalities have policies that explicitly protect the transgender community. These policies typically ban discrimination in policy areas, like education and employment, but some local governments went beyond these basic protections to serve vulnerable populations better. Although few governments formally create policies to work with homeless and transgender populations, more than a quarter of governments offer testing and treatment for HIV.

, , , , , , case-studies current-issues ethics human-resources practitioner-policy-ex public-policy social-equity
Adding sexual orientation to New York State’s human rights law: Initial information about implementation and effectiveness

While previous research has focused on measuring employment discrimination based on sexual orientation and establishing the need for
laws that protect against such discrimination, very little research has
evaluated the effectiveness of current nondiscrimination laws. This
exploratory research considers the addition of sexual orientation to
New York State’s Human Rights Law as it relates to employment. In an
effort to better understand the implementation and overall effectiveness of the law, attorneys in New York who specialize in employment
law were surveyed. The survey results, based on the responses of 34
attorneys, provide insights into how well the law has initially protected
individuals from discrimination, and how well it has provided redress
for claimants of employment discrimination. The initial results of the
research suggest that employees mostly seek redress for a hostile work
environment, that potential claimants are concerned with confidentiality and retaliation, and that more training for employees is needed
to combat employment discrimination based on sexual orientation

, , human-resources org-theory social-equity
Administrative decision-making amid competing public sector values: Confederate statue removal in Baltimore, Maryland

Confederate monuments conjure competing public sector values. Like many cities in the USA, Baltimore, Maryland had monuments honoring the “Lost Cause of the Confederacy”. Such monuments, usually constructed during periods of racial strife, typically feature prominent figures of the Confederacy, such as generals. Proponents of such monuments argue these monuments honor historical figures that shaped US history. Opponents assert monuments symbolize racist ideals and reinforce inequality, particularly for African Americans. Baltimore had four monuments until 2017. In the aftermath of two racially charged incidents following decades of social injustices, the Mayor of Baltimore, Catherine Pugh, ordered the monuments’ removal in August 2017. This case examines the details and rationale surrounding Pugh’s decision in the context of competing public sector values. The knowledge and skills gained from this case study can be applied to a range of public administration and policy issues involving social justice, administrative competencies, and leadership.

, , , , , , , case-studies current-issues ethics foundations-of-pa pa-theory practitioner-policy-ex public-policy teaching-pa
Administrative discretion and active representation: An expansion of the theory of representative bureaucracy

Recent studies of the theory of representative bureaucracy have focused on active representation, whereby administrators in public organizations work to advance the interests of particular groups, achieving policy outcomes that directly address the needs of those groups. The concept of administrative discretion is central to these studies, as an administrator must have the discretion to produce results that reflect the values and beliefs of these groups. While the presence of discretion is often implied in these studies, few have examined it explicitly. Using data from the Farmer’s Home Administration, we explore whether administrators who perceive themselves as having more discretion enact policy outcomes that are more representative of minority interests. The results strongly support the conclusion that administrators who perceive themselves as possessing significant discretion and who assume the role of minority representative in their agencies are more likely to enact policy outcomes that favor minority interests.

Administrative racism: Public administration education and race

Public administration has an ethical problem with race and racism. Researchers find that race is a nervous area of government public administrators avoid confronting, resulting in their eschewing discretion and creating administrative evil. Administrative racism occurs when administrators rely on technical rationality to avoid making difficult decisions about race. The authors argue public administration curricula must prepare students to address the root causes of racism. There is a need for race-conscious pedagogy to prepare administrators to competently negotiate this nervous area of government. This article presents one model for public administration programs to better prepare students to respond to ethical dilemmas dealing with race and racism. Drawing on critical race in education, this essay presents a race-conscious public administration dialogue, links this dialogue to public management ethics, and specifies a classroom-tested antiracist pedagogy for public administration.

, ethics pa-theory
Advancing Social Equity in the Minnowbrook Tradition

The goals of valuing social equity and using it as a guide in managing public programs arefirmly rooted in the Minnowbrook tradition. Although civil rights activists have long fought for equality, attendees at the Minnowbrook I conference in 1968 were among the first in thefield of public administration to directly confront societal inequities by asserting that publicadministrators should, in addition to valuing efficiency and effectiveness, stress the valuesocial equity in the management and distribution of public services. The field’s emphasis onsocial equity continued on through Minnowbrook II and was identified as a key concernduring the most recent Minnowbrook III conference. After briefly summarizing discussion onthis topic during Minnowbrook III, this article provides an agenda for advancing the field’scommitment to social equity. This agenda centers upon clarifying the conceptual para-meters of social equity, transforming the place of social equity in academic instruction, andbuilding upon existing themes and methodologies in social equity research. Last, predictionsfor the role of social equity at a future Minnowbrook IV conference are presented for further consideration.

, , , , equity gender organizational-equity pa-theory social-equity
Advancing social justice and racial equity in the public sector

This article argues that the integration of race-conscious dialogues in public administration programs will promote racial and social justice, as well as improve service delivery for a wide array of constituents. Scholars have acknowledged the challenges associated with incorporating racial justice into public sector practices. However, if racial divisions are to subside, academic and professional training programs need to purposefully include discussions of race, racism, and racial equity. This article concludes with a discussion of way to incorporate an antiracist pedagogy in public administration curriculum. This strategy can begin preparing future administrators to thoughtfully engage in difficult dialogues around topics of race and racism.

, , , org-theory pa-theory social-equity teaching-pa
Aloofness or dirty hands? Administrative culpability in the making of the second ghetto

This article takes a critical look at the actions of American public administrators affecting African Americans in inner cities in the mid-twentieth century. It compares these actions to those of British imperialist functionaries in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. We argue that domestic American administrators and imperialist functionaries shared an ethos of serving expansion and capital, sometimes as a means to achieve what they deemed to be the public interest. They also shared the use of race as a weapon in their drive to suppress the masses of what they viewed as superfluous expendable subject races—imperialized natives by British administrators or African Americans by U.S. administrators. Using Hannah Arendt’s The Origins of Totalitarianism, this article traces the role of administrators in the alliance between mob and capital that resulted in the resegregation and dispossession of African-American communities in much of urban America. This article argues that the combination of racism and public administration was used to subjugate and control subject races in British imperialized territories and in urban America.

, , , current-issues ethics public-policy social-equity
American Society for Public Administration Code of Ethics

The American Society for Public Administration (ASPA) advances the science, art, and practice of public administration. The Society affirms its responsibility to develop the spirit of responsible professionalism within its membership and to increase awareness and commitment to ethical principles and standards among all those who work in public service in all sectors. To this end, we, the members of the Society, commit ourselves to uphold the following principles:

Advance the Public Interest. Promote the interests of the public and put service to the public above service to oneself.

Uphold the Constitution and the Law. Respect and support government constitutions and laws, while seeking to improve laws and policies to promote the public good.

Promote Democratic Participation. Inform the public and encourage active engagement in governance. Be open, transparent and responsive, and respect and assist all persons in their dealings with public organizations.

Strengthen Social Equity. Treat all persons with fairness, justice, and equality and respect individual differences, rights, and ­freedoms. Promote affirmative action and other initiatives to reduce unfairness, injustice, and inequality in society.

Fully Inform and Advise. Provide accurate, honest, comprehensive, and timely information and advice to elected and appointed officials and governing board members, and to staff members in your organization.

Demonstrate Personal Integrity. Adhere to the highest standards of conduct to inspire public confidence and trust in public service.

Promote Ethical Organizations. Strive to attain the highest standards of ethics, stewardship, and public service in organizations that serve the public.

Advance Professional Excellence. Strengthen personal capabilities to act competently and ethically and encourage the professional ­development of others.

, , , academia policy public-administration public-policy
Anticipated discrimination and a career choice in nonprofit: A study of early career lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgendered (LGBT) job seekers

As a stigmatized group, lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgendered (LGBT) individuals are vulnerable to employment discrimination and receive little legal protection. They have had to cope with discrimination and engage in identity management to conceal their sexual identity. This study seeks to determine whether LGBT individuals, in anticipation of discrimination, have lower initial career expectations, espouse more altruistic work values, and make career choices based on those work values, when compared to heterosexual individuals. Using data from a large survey of postsecondary students, we found that LGBT individuals, after controlling for age, visible minority status, and major of study, reported lower salary expectations than heterosexual individuals. LGBT individuals were also more likely than their heterosexual counterparts to espouse “altruistic” work values and to indicate a career choice in the nonprofit sector. We suggest that “altruism” may be an important work value that is related to a career choice in the public and nonprofit sectors.

, , ethics leadership org-theory
Assesing the Organizational Culture of Higher Education Institutions in an Era of #MeToo

Sexual harassment was establised as a form of sex discrimination in institutions of higher educations (IHEs) under Title IX of the Education Amendments to the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Since then, decades of victimization surveys beginning in the 1980s show that sexual misconduct continues to be a significant problem for IHEs. Estimates suggest that as many as 25 percent of college women experience a sexual assualt while in college, while as many as 34 percent experience attempted or completed unwanted kissing, sexual touching using physical force, threat of physical force, and/or verbal coercion during their college career. In this Viewpoint essay, the authors propose the Preventing and Addressing Sexual Misconduct Framework as a tool to assess and cultivate an organizational culture that is responsive to these concerning trends. Pulling from an interdisciplinary body of scholarship and the philosophy of the #MeToo movement, this tool is a starting place for the continued dialogue that is needed to more fully address sexual misconduct on college campuses.

, gender-equity public-policy
Automation in the public sector: Efficiency at the expense of equity?

Automation promises to reshape a variety of work contexts in the coming years and the public sector will not be immune. While technology broadly—and automation in particular—offers a range of potential benefits from standardization to operational efficiency to financial savings, the potential tradeoffs and ethical impacts should not be neglected. This article addresses potential implications of automation as they apply to the public-sector workforce and its expressed values. Using data on state and local government employee demographics and occupations, this article utilizes scholarly predictions to forecast the ways in which automation may impact the public workforce, including the sector’s commitment to equity goals such as equal employment opportunity and the cultivation of a diverse workforce. Based on this analysis, recommendations are offered for prioritizing these public service values in a swiftly changing context.

, human-resources social-equity
“Where My Gays At?” The Status of LGBTQ People and Queer Theory in Nonprofit Research

This article critically examines academic scholarship in the field of nonprofit studies that pertains to lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) people and issues. We introduce the key tenets of queer theory, a critical theory which encourages questioning social constructs, to nonprofit studies as a lens through which to examine the nonprofit sector. Using a queer approach, we analyze the past research on LGBTQ issues along the continuums of whether the research subjects are active or passive participants, and whether the focus on LGBTQ issues is ancillary or central. We find a minority of articles, most written between 2015 and 2019, which position LGBTQ people as central and active participants in the research. We conclude by providing a research agenda for how queer theory can be applied to the nonprofit sector and argue that placing LGBTQ people and organizations as central constituencies in nonprofit research will facilitate social change.

, , , , academia lgbtq policy research social-equity
Balancing the four Es; or can we achieve equity for social equity in public administration?

Although social equity was brought to the table in the New Public Administration of the 1960s and named the fourth pillar of public administration by the National Academy of Public Administration near the turn of this century, it still struggles to find its place as an equal among the traditional public administration values of economy, efficiency, and effectiveness. The question to be addressed here is, “How do we elevate social equity to equal playing status with the other pillars of public administration?” In addressing this question, three key areas are examined: definitions, measures, and curriculum. By examining how we currently define, measure, and teach about the values of public administration, including social equity, this paper provides ideas for “imagining and improving the future” so that social equity becomes an equal among its peers and becomes a standard of practice as opposed to a stand of courage among public administrators and policy makers.

, , pa-theory social-equity teaching-pa
Behind the Scenes of Coproduction of Smart Mobility: Evidence from a Public Values’ Perspective

The advances in information and communication technology (ICT) have extended the applicability of citizen coproduction in government service delivery and have entailed transformative changes, especially at the city level. City governments around the globe increasingly rely on the private sector to set ICT-based urban innovations, like initiatives to involve citizens in the coproduction of smart mobility. Although there are many benefits of ICT-based coproduction, there is nevertheless the potential for tension between private companies and the government with whom they are cooperating. Those tensions are built on the differences in interests and values of private and public actors, and the way of realizing them, and they can compromise the vision and duty of the government. We, therefore, aim to understand the potential impact of private companies’ involvement on the expectations and perceptions of coproducing actors towards social-oriented and service-oriented public values. We conducted an exploratory in-depth case study of the smart bike-sharing system in one of the major cities in Flanders, Belgium. Data were collected through official documents and 27 semi-structured interviews with key coproducing actors. These data were then qualitatively analyzed using Nvivo software. Our exploratory case study indicated that the private actor upholds the realization of values such as efficiency, reliability, and ease of access by bringing in resources and expertise to coproduce smart mobility. However, certain social-oriented values like citizen empowerment and engagement, and (digital) inclusiveness are not part of the private partner’s vision. The study highlights the potential assets and risks for the realization of public values when dealing with conflicting interests between coproducing actors, and in this way considers a different angle on private companies’ involvement in the coproduction of public services.

, , , , , , case-studies current-issues ethics foundations-of-pa pa-theory social-equity teaching-pa
Beyond a Numbers Game? Impact of Diversity and Inclusion on the Perception of Organizational Justice

Organizational justice, diversity, and inclusion are central tenets of social equity in public organizations. This study explores the effects of diversity management and inclusive leadership practices on employees’ perceptions of organizational justice. Drawing from FedScope and the 2019 Federal Employee Viewpoint Survey, we find that an increase in the number of women and Black, Indigenous and other People of Color (BIPOC) is not sufficient to improve employees’ perceptions towards organizational justice; rather, as workforce diversity increases, the perception of organizational justice decreases when the relationship is moderated by an active form of diversity management, such as an organization’s policies and programs to promote heterogeneous workgroups. The results suggest that as workplace diversity increases, inclusive leadership practices positively influence organizational justice. The findings also indicate that the impact of diversity and inclusion on employees’ perceptions of organizational justice differs by gender and race.

, , , , , equity org-theory organizational-equity public-administration racial-equity social-equity
Beyond a Numbers Game? Impact of Diversity and Inclusion on the Perception of Organizational Justice

Organizational justice, diversity, and inclusion are central tenets of social equity in public organizations. This study explores the effects of diversity management and inclusive leadership practices on employees’ perceptions of organizational justice. Drawing from FedScope and the 2019 Federal Employee Viewpoint Survey, we find that an increase in the number of women and Black, Indigenous and other People of Color (BIPOC) is not sufficient to improve employees’ perceptions toward organizational justice; rather, as workforce diversity increases, the perception of organizational justice decreases when the relationship is moderated by an active form of diversity management, such as an organization’s policies and programs to promote heterogeneous workgroups. The results suggest that as workplace diversity increases, inclusive leadership practices positively influence organizational justice. The findings also indicate that the impact of diversity and inclusion on employees’ perceptions of organizational justice differs by gender and race.

, , , , , , diversity inclusion org-theory organizational-equity pa-theory public-administration social-equity
Beyond Bostock: Implications for LGBTQ+ Theory and Practice

he recent U.S. Supreme Court ruling in Bostock v. Clayton County is a landmark piece of case law that offers fundamental rights to LGBT persons. This essay reflects on how this case arrived at the Supreme Court and its implications for theory and praxis. The overall conclusion is that cautious optimism is warranted.

, , equity lgbtq public-policy
Beyond the Lavender Scare: LGBT and heterosexual employees in the federal workplace

Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) identities within the workplace have recently gained greater attention as significant demographic categories. A key question that emerges from the limited scholarship on LGBT employment in the federal government is whether there is a distinction between the experiences of employees within federal security agencies, defined here as the five major agencies that provide civilian support to the defense and military structures of the United States, and employees of other federal agencies. Using data from the 2013 Employee Viewpoint Survey, this article addresses the following questions: How does sexual orientation and/or gender identity as self-reported in the 2013 EVS impact employee perceptions of personal safety and security, job satisfaction, and diversity issues, and how do these perceptions vary between employees of the major security agencies and other federal agencies? The article shows that across the federal government employees are reasonably satisfied with diversity issues in the workplace, with no appreciable difference between those in security and nonsecurity agencies. However, current programs and policies intended to foster and institutionalize diversity are viewed as ineffective and should be improved through new policies and programs.

, , , ethics human-resources org-theory pa-theory
Beyond the lavender scare: LGBT and heterosexual employees in the federal workplace

Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) identities within the workplace have recently gained greater attention as significant demographic categories. A key question that emerges from the limited scholarship on LGBT employment in the federal government is whether there is a distinction between the experiences of employees within federal security agencies, defined here as the five major agencies that provide civilian support to the defense and military structures of the United States, and employees of other federal agencies. Using data from the 2013 Employee Viewpoint Survey, this article addresses the following questions: How does sexual orientation and/or gender identity as self-reported in the 2013 EVS impact employee perceptions of personal safety and security, job satisfaction, and diversity issues, and how do these perceptions vary between employees of the major security agencies and other federal agencies? The article shows that across the federal government employees are reasonably satisfied with diversity issues in the workplace, with no appreciable difference between those in security and nonsecurity agencies. However, current programs and policies intended to foster and institutionalize diversity are viewed as ineffective and should be improved through new policies and programs.

, , , , , , , , , case-studies current-issues ethics human-resources org-theory pa-theory practitioner-policy-ex public-policy social-equity teaching-pa
Beyond the Turtle Approach: Women in the Public Sector

Equity issues persist in defining public sector women as in need of accommodation, including during times of child-rearing or caregiving. The authors argue instead that viewing the fullness of a woman’s existence should empower others to see broad life experiences as a benefit to be fostered. Public service organizations and the academy should build policies and systems that recognize this value and work to cultivate, rather than accommodate. While women have historically taken the turtle arpproach- that is, keep your head down…

, , , civil-rights gender-equity public-administration public-policy
Black Women in the Military: Prevalence, Characteristics, and Correlates of Sexual Harassment

Sexual harassment is a persistent problem in the workplace that warrants further attention in public administration research. Despite the fact that black women are one of the largest subpopulations in the military, most studies of sexual harassment treat women as a homogenous group, and results generally reflect the experiences of white women, given their overrepresentation in samples. Using data from a large-scale and representative survey of military members, we find that nearly one in five black women in the military (17.9%) experienced sexual harassment in 2018. Our findings further detail black women’s sexual harassment experiences and advance the discourse on the need to address sexual harassment in the workplace through an intersectional lens in order to design more inclusive prevention and response programs and policies. For example, inclusive programs should proactively account for the experiences of black women in the design and evaluation of prevention and response efforts.

, , , , , , , african-american civil-rights communities-of-color current-issues equity ethics gender women
Bridging or deepening the digital divide: Influence of household internet access on formal and informal volunteering

The digital divide persists; a quarter of the U.S. population is unconnected, left without Internet access at home. Yet volunteer recruitment is increasingly moving online to reach a broader audience. Despite widespread use, little is known about whether the lack of digital access has repercussions on connections offline in the community. We examine the influence of access on volunteering across four critical aspects—structure, time devoted, level of professionalization, and pathways to volunteering. We find home Internet access has an independent influence on volunteering even after controlling for socioeconomic status. Those with access are more likely to volunteer, formally and informally, and are more likely to become volunteers because they were asked. However, digitally unconnected volunteers devote more time. Nonprofit organizations and government agencies should be strategic and inclusive in their volunteer recruitment efforts to ensure they recruit qualified and dedicated volunteers rather than rely solely on digital recruitment strategies.

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Budget theory and budget practice: How good the fit?

This article describes the past and present and projects the future of the relationship between theory and practice for both normative and descriptive budget theory. It argues that budgeters have underestimated the successes. The present and future of normative theory look gloomy without major fresh ideas because the world of budgeting has changed and many traditional reform ideas have out-lived their usefulness. Descriptive theory has traditionally been weaker, but it has improved in recent years and will probably do well in the near future.

, , budgeting foundations-of-pa pa-theory
Bureau Men Settlement Women

During the first two decades of the twentieth century in cities across America, both men and women struggled for urban reform but in distinctively different ways. Adhering to gender roles of the time, men working for independent research bureaus sought to apply scientific and business practices to corrupt city governments, while women in the settlement house movement labored to improve the lives of the urban poor by testing new services and then getting governments to adopt them. Although the two intertwined at first, the contributions of these “settlement women” to the development of the administrative state have been largely lost as the new field of public administration evolved from the research bureaus and diverged from social work. Camilla Stivers now shows how public administration came to be dominated not just by science and business but also by masculinity, calling into question much that is taken for granted about the profession and creating an alternative vision of public service.

, , leadership pa-theory social-equity
Bureaucracy, Democracy and Race: The Limits of Symbolic Representation

A bureaucracy that is representative of the public it serves- passive representation- can result in both active participation and symbolic representation.

, , public-policy racial-equity representation
Bureaucratic discretion and same-sex couples

This article considers the role that bureaucratic discretion can play in expanding access to government resources and government legitimacy for same-sex couples during periods of policy ambiguity, and how efforts to shape the use of bureaucratic discretion can be used as moments of political activism by same-sex marriage advocates. Special attention is given to the heightened role of bureaucratic discretion in the context of policy ambiguity surrounding gay marriage in California, before the U.S. Supreme Court’s decision in the historic Hollingsworth v. Perry case.

, , , , , , case-studies ethics leadership org-theory pa-theory public-policy social-equity
Burnout in HIV/AIDS volunteers: A sociocultural analysis among latino gay and bisexual men and transgender people

Understanding factors associated with burnout among HIV/AIDS volunteers has long-ranging implications for community organizations and prevention. Using a cross-sectional sample of Latino gay/bisexual men and transgender people (N = 309), we assess potential correlates of burnout identified by multiple theories, including factors associated with volunteering (experiences, motives) and contextual factors (stigma, sense of community). Reporting negative volunteering experiences was positively associated with burnout, while being motivated by personal HIV/AIDS experiences and having a greater sense of gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender people (GLBT) community was negatively related to burnout. The study highlights central challenges and opportunities to retain volunteers from marginalized communities.

, human-resources org-theory
Care work: Invisible civic engagement

Scholars who debate the cause of and solutions for the decline in civic engagement have suggested that Americans have increasingly withdrawn from community organizations, reducing their political activity such as voting and interest in the political world, and generally failing to place the common good over individual self-interest. Their analyses are steeped in a tradition that is largely gender blind and consequently ignores care work. We infuse feminist analyses of paid labor and citizenship, which emphasize the merits and burdens of care work, into the civic engagement debate. We argue that care work, predominantly performed by women, paradoxically limits, enhances, and even constitutes a vital form of civic activity. We call for a fuller slate of social policies that will both redistribute the burden of care work and reinvigorate civic engagement.

, , pa-theory public-policy social-equity
Careers of Women Public Managers: Career Needs of Women Public Managers across Generations

This study examines women’s managerial experiences in leadership roles and reflects on their career needs. Women’s career needs are understood by applying the Kaleidoscope Career Model (KCM), which is yet to be widely explored in public sector settings. The KCM recognizes the interplay of multiple experiences that shape the career development of women in the workforce. Using 21 in-depth interviews with women municipal government leaders in the United States, we find that while all three parameters of the KCM model are relevant for women public managers, the need for balance is overwhelmingly evident for women across all generations. Further, we demonstrate how the relationality of women public managers, and the interplay of personal and professional needs drive their career goals. The findings from this study are relevant to human resource development policies and practices that take generational differences into account.

, , , , , , equality equity ethics feminist-theory gender gender-equity women
Celebrating 82 Years

In commemoration of Public Administration Review’s 82nd anniversary, PAR recognizes and honors the ASPA presidents and PAR editors in chief of the past and present.

academia
Challenging the performance movement: Accountability, complexity, and democratic values

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Changing the narrative: The difference women make in public administration

The dominant narrative about women’s progress in public administration focuses on identifying the obstacles to that progress and how to overcome them. But to make real progress toward gender equality and social justice, we must rethink our entire approach to research. Understanding the difference women make via narrative inquiry is a necessary change to the prevailing dialectic.

, , leadership public-policy social-equity
Children of a lesser god: Administrative burden and social equity in citizen–state interactions

An important research agenda in public administration is to investigate how formal and realized public policy influences the lives of marginalized social groups. Recently, reinvigorated research on administrative burden can make useful contributions to this line of inquiry. Using ethnographic research methods, this article analyzes administrative burden experienced by the Khawaja Sira—individuals culturally defined as neither men nor women—of Pakistan in getting a legal ID. In doing so, this article contributes to a better understanding of the role played by third parties, administrative behavior and social factors play in influencing the level of administrative burden and social inequity for genderqueer groups.

, ethics public-policy
Coming to terms: Teaching systemic racism and (the myth of) white supremacy

“Teaching about systemic racism and the myth of white supremacy to the next cadre of public administrators is critical as it supports students’ abilities to challenge dominant paradigms and center counternarratives; both serve a purpose in advancing toward a more just and equitable society. This paper offers insight into the development and implementation of course content – across two universities in two different sociopolitical contexts – that helps students define, examine, and apply social justice terms that advances training for public service. Exposure to such content challenges students to consider ways in which social, economic, and political factors influence life chances and allows students to better understand how power and privilege perpetuate status quo inequities for marginalized populations.”

, , , , , , , african-american bias civil-rights communities-of-color education equity race racial-equity
Constructing and implementing transgender policy for public administration

Sex and gender are increasingly complex topics that prompt new policy and administrative responses within public agencies. As the federal workforce evolves, federal employment policy must accommodate the needs of employees who do not fit traditional sex/gender categories. One emerging area of policy targets transgender employees, particularly policy that guides the employer response throughout the transitioning process. This research seeks to answer the following questions: How can transitioning policy and implementation within federal agencies affect employees? and How should transitioning policy be crafted and implemented? This work addresses organizational behavior and management issues by presenting a successful case of a workplace transition. Interviews of an administrator guiding the transitioning process and one of the first federal employees to complete a transition while in a federal field office are conducted. Ultimately, this research explores challenges with emergent policy and suggests avenues for designing and enacting future transitioning policy.

, , human-resources pa-theory public-policy
Constructing and implementing transgender policy for public administration

Sex and gender are increasingly complex topics that prompt new policy and administrative responses within public agencies. As the federal workforce evolves, federal employment policy must accommodate the needs of employees who do not fit traditional sex/gender categories. One emerging area of policy targets transgender employees, particularly policy that guides the employer response throughout the transitioning process. This research seeks to answer the following questions: How can transitioning policy and implementation within federal agencies affect employees? and How should transitioning policy be crafted and implemented? This work addresses organizational behavior and management issues by presenting a successful case of a workplace transition. Interviews of an administrator guiding the transitioning process and one of the first federal employees to complete a transition while in a federal field office are conducted. Ultimately, this research explores challenges with emergent policy and suggests avenues for designing and enacting future transitioning policy.

, , , , , , , , case-studies current-issues ethics human-resources org-theory practitioner-policy-ex research-methods social-equity teaching-pa
Critical incidents, invisible communities and public policy: A case of the LGBT community

This exploratory research paper discusses important issues in public policy and service delivery,
critical incidence analysis, and invisible communities. Using the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and
transgender (LGBT) community as a case study, I raise several questions about critical issues,
including: How does critical incident analysis fit into study of public policy and how do we
understand invisible communities in critical incident analysis, and what next steps are needed to
improve critical incidence analysis with regards to invisible communities? In order to improve our
understanding of these issues, I recommend a deeper study of social construction of target
populations, more systematic data gathering on invisible communities, and increased media
accountability and standards.

, , case-studies public-policy social-equity
Cultural competence for the global age

Teaching cultural competency is a two-way street. Instruction is more comprehensive when it raises awareness of cultural context. And students see relevancy when they learn how theories and principles relate to the context they know. Cultural context is especially obvious in nations colonized by cultures different from theirs. India provides a compelling example because it has a blended public service culture containing several parts tradition and several parts that fit uncomfortably with the nation’s psyche. This discussion uses public administration in India to demonstrate how cultural context shapes preferences for institutions and how it influences expectations for interpersonal dynamics when state meets street. After presenting the Indian scenario, suggestions are provided for how to incorporate cultural competency into the curriculum and how to spotlight it in a classroom exercise.

, , , , , cultural-competency foundations-of-pa pa-theory public-administration racial-equity relations
Democracy and social ethics

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, ethics foundations-of-pa
Diffusion of Complex Governance Arrangements: State Approaches to Addressing Intimate Partner Violence

In the 1970s, many viewed domestic violence as a private concern. Since then, every state has adopted a domestic violence coalition to address intimate partner violence (IPV) through government intervention. States vary, however, in the structure of the coalitions, participation in federal programs, and the comprehensiveness of IPV services offered. Using the theoretical lenses of policy diffusion and policy drift, this study assesses the development of IPV coalitions from 1976 to 2018, paying particular attention to institutional structures, intergovernmental resources, and strategic service priorities. We find evidence of policy drift and multidirectional policy diffusion in state IPV institutional structures, service delivery, federal program participation, and strategic priorities of these activities. Federal grant programs increase the likelihood of program emulation among states and may encourage innovation within existing institutional and policy structures for the development of comprehensive services and a preventive approach to IPV that best serve vulnerable groups.

, , , , , , , , , , bias-in-criminal-justice-system citizen-interactions current-issues feminist-theory gender gender-equity police policy politics public-administration women
Disciplines, Demographics, & Expertise: Foundations for Transferring Professional Norms in Nonprofit Graduate Education

Every profession has a common core of values and professional norms that help legitimize expertise and standardize behavior, which are both molded by and instilled through socialization and teaching in educational programs. Accreditation and professional associations help influence the transfer of these norms, including attention to not just what we are teaching, but also how we are teaching it, and what underlying messages we are communicating. We broaden that to also examine who is teaching by examining demographics, expertise, and disciplinary influences as a notable influence on the socialization process of professional norms and values. Our findings show that nonprofit graduate programs represent three main disciplinary influences. The professional expertise of faculty is even more wide-ranging and women account for a higher percentage of instructors than public administration degrees or across all academic disciplines. Efforts to infuse professional norms in nonprofit studies may be complicated by the lack of disciplinary home for the field and a corresponding variety of disciplinary backgrounds for assigned professors.

, , academia education nonprofit
Diversity in the nonprofit and voluntary sector

In this introductory essay to the special issue of Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly on diversity, we begin by reviewing management research on diversity in nonprofits. The preponderance of this research focuses on demographic representation. While more contemporary approaches emphasize inclusion in decision making, even this approach falls significantly short because group categorization and identity have become increasingly complex and fluid. We ultimately explore a values approach to diversity, where the fact that people are inherently diverse is recognized and valued in all organizational activities. The final section of this introduction reviews articles included in the special issue. We conclude that the diversity concept must move well beyond a managerial approach to include broader social theories, giving deep consideration to concepts of identity, power dynamics and hidden interest conflicts in diversity efforts, and the ways that societal diversity affects the dynamics of volunteering and the structuring of nonprofit organizations.

, human-resources org-theory
Diversity Management in Public Organizations and Its Effect on Employees’ Affective Commitment: The Role of Transformational Leadership and the Inclusiveness of the Organizational Culture

The purpose of this article is to explore the link between diversity management in public organizations and employees’ affective commitment by testing hypotheses on the mediating roles of transformational leadership and inclusive organizational culture. By combining theories on human resource management and performance with theories on diversity and inclusiveness, a theoretical model is built explaining when and why diversity management should positively affect employees’ affective commitment. Survey data from a representative sample of 10,976 Dutch public sector employees were used in testing our hypotheses using structural equation modeling techniques. Results show that the effect of diversity management on employees’ affective commitment can partially be explained by its impact on the inclusiveness of the organizational culture. In addition, the impact is influenced through the transformational leadership shown by supervisors who can be considered as the implementers of diversity management and as agents in creating inclusiveness. The implications for future research and management practice are further discussed.

, , , human-resources leadership org-theory social-equity
Emotional labor & COVID-19: MPA program director perspectives

Emotional labor refers to the management and regulation of emotions as part of one’s professional role. This research is one of the first to provide insight into the role of emotional labor during a global pandemic for Master of Public Administration (MPA) Program directors. Our paper both replicates and extends previous work in emotional labor through examining survey data from 92 MPA Directors. Using emotional labor as our descriptive framework, the findings suggest gender and academic rank indicate whose workload has been affected during the coronavirus pandemic. Furthermore, the results indicate the likelihood of greater burdens experienced by women, both white women and women of color. Our findings offer additional understanding about how emotional labor continues to impact certain populations within our public administration and policy discipline, sounding the alarm for MPA programs to address the problems at hand.

, , academia covid-19 pa-theory
Empowerment-focused philanthropy: Bridging feminist theories and organizational practices through U.S. women’s funds

The purpose of this study is to understand feminist empowerment through the grant-making and other work of U.S. women’s foundations and funds to determine how they incorporate and facilitate empowerment. This study contributes new knowledge on the connections between feminist empowerment theories and the organizational practices of women’s philanthropic organizations. To assess the ways in which empowerment manifests in the work of these organizations, feminist empowerment literature was examined along with development literature on women’s empowerment, and critiques of empowerment. For this study, a database was created of more than 200 foundations and funds in 43 states by using website and IRS data and a survey administered. The findings speak to the ways in which women’s foundations and funds align with empowerment theories and the areas of disconnect.

, , , , , , equity feminist-theory gender gender-equity org-theory organizational-equity women
Equal Employment Opportunity: Women Bureaucrats in Male-Dominated Professions

The public sector prides itself on being a place where women and other marginalized groups can find shelter from workplace discrimination. Still, gender inequities are evident in the public sector workforce. In this article, interview data from city managers and police officers highlight the gendered internal organizational processes, arrangements, and interactions that impact women’s experiences in male‐dominated roles. Despite seemingly equal opportunities to access and engagement in these bureaucratic roles, the findings suggest that women constantly face gendered barriers and boundaries that directly impact their experiences on the job and their work‐related outcomes. Legislative and administrative remedies are not sufficient to eliminate gendered experiences of women in male‐dominated roles. Rather, a cultural change from within the workplace is vital to realize the efforts of civil rights laws established more than 50 years ago.

, gender-equity public-policy
Equal Employment Opportunity: Women Bureaucrats in Male-Dominated Professions: Women Bureaucrats in Male-Dominated Professions

The public sector prides itself on being a place where women and other marginalized groups can find shelter from workplace discrimination. Still, gender inequities are evident in the public sector workforce. In this article, interview data from city managers and police officers highlight the gendered internal organizational processes, arrangements, and interactions that impact women’s experiences in male‐dominated roles. Despite seemingly equal opportunities to access and engagement in these bureaucratic roles, the findings suggest that women constantly face gendered barriers and boundaries that directly impact their experiences on the job and their work‐related outcomes. Legislative and administrative remedies are not sufficient to eliminate gendered experiences of women in male‐dominated roles. Rather, a cultural change from within the workplace is vital to realize the efforts of civil rights laws established more than 50 years ago.

Equal Employment Opportunity: Women Bureaucrats in Male‐Dominated Professions

The public sector prides itself on being a place where women and other marginalized groups can find shelter from workplace discrimination. Still, gender inequities are evident in the public sector workforce. In this article, interview data from city managers and police officers highlight the gendered internal organizational processes, arrangements, and interactions that impact women’s experiences in male‐dominated roles. Despite seemingly equal opportunities to access and engagement in these bureaucratic roles, the findings suggest that women constantly face gendered barriers and boundaries that directly impact their experiences on the job and their work‐related outcomes. Legislative and administrative remedies are not sufficient to eliminate gendered experiences of women in male‐dominated roles. Rather, a cultural change from within the workplace is vital to realize the efforts of civil rights laws established more than 50 years ago.

, , gender-equity human-resources workplace-discrimination
Erased: Why Faculty Sexual Misconduct is Prevalent and How We Could Prevent it

The issue of faculty sexual misconduct is pervasive within academia, and more specifically, our public affairs graduate programs. At least 13% of women in academia experience sexual harassment by a faculty member. For too long, we have relied upon an underground network of individuals who work behind the scenes to protect our students. In this statement to the discipline of public affairs, we call out the institutional designs that permit complicity. An unbalanced student-professor power dynamic, exploited student vulnerabilities, and a lack of effective checks and balances nurture an environment that lets misconduct proliferate. Perpetrators are shielded by institutional protections and loopholes designed to protect universities from liability. In this call to action, we employ the social ecological framework to define achievable steps for confronting sexual misconduct at all levels of our academic system. Finally, we unequivocally demand action, now.

, , , academia gender-equity public-policy representation
Exploring the “In-Between” Place: Dialogue, Hermeneutics, and Transformation in Governance

The vocabulary of governance has yet to come to terms with hermeneutic processes. This article explores the emergence and transformation in governance of Ohio’s Cuyahoga River using an interpretive approach based on philosophical hermeneutics. Drawing on Gadamer’s hermeneutic concepts of tradition, authority, and prejudice, this research reveals how hermeneutic space is created in dialogue, deliberations, and collaborative work. This more fluid understanding for the governance process has key ramifications for public administration research and practice in terms of an ontological understanding of governance, rethinking of the practice of administrative skills, and shifting the manner in which authority is understood and exercised.

, pa-theory public-policy
Facing the Giant: A Framework to Undo Sex‐Based Discrimination in Academia

In 2019, American workers reported 26,221 claims of workplace harassment to the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. Nearly half of those claims represented sex‐based harassment. The #MeToo movement has shined a spotlight on the pervasiveness of harassment across sectors and institutions. A 2018 report by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine indicates that 58 percent of women in academic institutions, for instance, have experienced some form of sexual harassment. In this article, the authors propose a three‐part framework to establish a culture of zero tolerance of sexual harassment. The framework helps academic and other institutions prevent sexual harassment, protect victims from risks of reporting harassment, and set accountability measures to demand justice. The utility of the framework is twofold. First, administrators can apply it as a tool to audit institutional attitudes toward sexual harassment. Second, leaders can apply it as a corrective tool to prevent permissive organizational climates that allow sexual harassment to be perpetuated.

Facing the Giant: A Framework to Undo Sex‐Based Discrimination in Academia

In 2019, American workers reported 26,221 claims of workplace harassment to the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. Nearly half of those claims represented sex‐based harassment. The #MeToo movement has shined a spotlight on the pervasiveness of harassment across sectors and institutions. A 2018 report by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine indicates that 58 percent of women in academic institutions, for instance, have experienced some form of sexual harassment. In this article, the authors propose a three‐part framework to establish a culture of zero tolerance of sexual harassment. The framework helps academic and other institutions prevent sexual harassment, protect victims from risks of reporting harassment, and set accountability measures to demand justice. The utility of the framework is twofold. First, administrators can apply it as a tool to audit institutional attitudes toward sexual harassment. Second, leaders can apply it as a corrective tool to prevent permissive organizational climates that allow sexual harassment to be perpetuated.

, , , civil-rights gender-equity public-administration public-policy
Female police officers and their experiences: The Metropolitan Police of Buenos Aires context

This research explores the experience of female police officers in the Metropolitan Police of Buenos Aires, which began providing public safety in 2010. The purpose of this research is to better understand the barriers and opportunities female officers are encountering in this new context of community policing in Latin America. With better understanding, law enforcement officials will be better equipped to ensure that female officers achieve at the highest levels in organizations. Responding female officers identified civic duty as a primary reason for joining the force. Female officers did not report significant levels of institutional discrimination but did report informal disparaging treatment, including sexual harassment. The results of this research suggest that as this young police force matures, officials should pay close attention to the emerging culture of the organization, as many common and negative aspects of it have already started to form.

, , , current-issues human-resources org-theory pa-theory
Fight or flight: How gender influences follower responses to unethical leader behaviour

Does unethical leader behaviour produce gendered responses? We study follower response to unethical leader behaviours of bribery and workplace harassment. Our findings, based on an experiment, suggest that leader gender, gender congruence, and implicit gender biases influence follower responses to unethical leader behaviour. These findings raise the troubling implication that unethical male leaders will remain entrenched in positions of power.

, , , , , , bias equity ethics gender gender-equity leaders organizational-equity
Financial management and charitable giving in gay and lesbian households

To date, most charitable giving research assumes that all households are heterosexual and that couples make giving decisions from joint financial resources. This study examines household financial management and charitable decision making among a purposeful sample of 19 gay and lesbian couples. Semistructured joint interviews were conducted and analyzed using grounded theory techniques. The study finds that same-sex couples practice financial management systems that preserve independence (independent and partial-pooling systems), in contrast to different-sex couples, who favor joint management. These systems yield more accounts from which charitable giving can occur. Same-sex couples’ giving does not always follow the household’s financial management structure, and many couples give both jointly and separately. Finally, some same-sex couples use their giving as a way to give lesbian, gay, and bisexual people visibility and recognition as supporters of mainstream (non-LGBT [lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender]) organizations. Future research should consider both sexual orientation and financial management practices in understanding charitable behavior.

budgeting
Flirting with Disaster: Public Management in Crisis Situations

Flirting with Disaster is the first thorough examination of government successes and failures in responding to natural disaster situations. The author contrasts the bureaucratic principles that dominate governmental activity with the disruptive effects of disaster and the forms of human behavior that emerge during disaster situations. By comparing case studies of Hurricane Hugo, Hurricane Andrew, the Loma Prieta earthquake, and the 1990 floods in South Carolina, the author is able to identify the factors that contribute to effective response to disasters and the conditions under which relatively minor crises may lead to system breakdown. The book looks at an extremely important but previously unexamined area of public administration and public policy; presents a general theory of governmental performance in natural disaster situations; identifies factors contributing to government success or failure in coping with disasters; offers fresh insights into how the government can improve its response in disaster situations; and integrates insights from emergency management studies, agenda-building research, and the study of collective behavior.

, , current-issues pa-theory public-policy
Food Insecurity and Collateral Consequences of Punishment Admist the COVID-19 Pandemic

Bipartisan governmental representatives and the public support investment in health care, housing, education, and nutrition programs, plus resources for people leaving prison and jail (Halpin, 2018; Johnson & Beletsky, 2020; USCCR, 2019). The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 banned people with felony drug convictions from receiving food stamps or Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) benefits. Food insecurity, recidivism, and poor mental and physical health outcomes are associated with such bans. Several states have overturned SNAP benefit bans, yet individuals with criminal convictions are still denied benefits due to eligibility criteria modifications. COVID‐19 has impaired lower‐income, food‐insecure communities, which disproportionately absorb people released from prison and jail. Reentry support is sorely lacking.

, covid-19 equity
Fostering a civically engaged society: The university and service learning

As public administration is faced with the challenge of making governance work, the university is being called upon to become more involved in the civic engagement movement. Increasing civic engagement requires addressing one of the core problems contributing to its decline: deteriorating community caused by a lack of social capital. Although there is debate about whether there has been a decline in civic engagement or simply a change in the ways citizens participate, there is agreement about the need to increase engagement and to include universities in this process. One of the proposed solutions, advocated by Barber and Battistoni (1993) and Putnam (2000), is service learning.

Empirical data support a positive association between service learning and social capital (D’Agostino, 2006). This paper moves beyond theory to describe actual collaboration between universities and public administration to foster a civically engaged society. I will first show that the university is a key actor in community. I will then describe service learning as the means for universities to fulfill their role in community. This is followed by articulating how, through master of public administration (MPA) programs, the university can move this conversation forward. This effort by universities is then assessed through a survey of 133 MPA chairs.

pa-theory
Fundraising as women’s work? Examining the profession with a gender lens

Fundraising is a mission‐critical area for nonprofit organizations and has emerged as a professional field in the past 50 years. This paper explores the gendered nature of fundraising work and its feminization as a profession over time, while simultaneously documenting the persistence of a gender pay gap and male over-representation in senior‐level positions in both North America and in the UK. The application of gender theory reveals that fundraising roles and responsibilities rely on key relationship‐building and organizational tasks, which are commonly associated with stereotypical women’s work and are, thus, valued less in a patriarchal society. As a result, the devaluing of fundraising as mission‐critical work, and a career suitable for both women and men, may limit the credibility and power of the nonprofit sector to represent diverse voices and enhance democratic values in society. The article concludes with recommendations for research and practice.

, human-resources org-theory
Gay AIDS voluntarism as political activity

In a number of respects, the voluntary response of New York City’s sizable gay community to AIDS, through Gay Men’s Health Crisis (GMHC), has been unique. In addition to its important advocacy and service-providing functions, the work of GMHC assumed significant political dimensions that served to counter discrimination, empower the organization’s adherents, and help preserve their sense of community in the face of a medical and social catastrophe.

, org-theory social-equity
Gay and lesbian cops: Diversity and effective policing

An introductory chapter includes a case study of how two lesbian police officers assisted in the investigation of the murder of a gay, hearing-impaired college student. Chapter 2 provides an overview of the relevant literature, including background information on discrimination against gay and lesbian individuals in public employment, the ways in which sexual minorities manage disclosure in the workplace, the recent history of lesbian and gay people in policing, and the development of shared perceptions by gay and lesbian officers about their work environment. This chapter also discusses how organizational effectiveness can be compromised when police agencies resist diversification that includes the hiring of gay and lesbian officers. Chapter 3 addresses community policing, which promotes interactive police and community strategies and resources that proactively promote public safety. This policing philosophy has led law enforcement agencies to face diversity in the communities they serve, which has led to recognition of the importance of recruiting gay and lesbian people into police service. Chapter 4 considers the experiences and shared perceptions of lesbian and gay officers in the United States and the United Kingdom, followed by a chapter that discusses the ways in which lesbian and gay officers have brought a unique dimension to law enforcement. Chapter 6 highlights two case studies – one in the United States and one in the United Kingdom – which show the distinctive and specialized contributions of gay and lesbian officers to policing. Chapter 7 explores the role of professional police associations in helping to diversify police personnel. The two remaining chapters focus on improvements in recruiting and retaining lesbian and gay officers; and best practices are recommended based on research conducted for this book. Tables, figures, references and a subject index

, , human-resources org-theory social-equity
Gay liberation

How does a social movement develop among a segment of the American population labeled deviant and criminal? How does such a movement attempt to change the laws, procedures, attitudes and practices of a western “liberal” nation so that the deviants are no longer handled by the agents of the state but are regarded as legitimate, tolerated citizens who simply have a different life style? This paper explores these questions through an analysis of the gay liberation movement as it developed in the United States after 1950.

social-equity
Gender and representative bureaucracy

Representative bureaucracy theory is instructive for dealing with the challenges that gender brings to governance. This chapter situates power structures within masculinist norms and explains why this is inadequate. Arguing that gender exists on a continuum rather than being binary, the authors apply representative bureaucracy norms to all locations on the continuum and provides a glossary of terms. Explaining how all categories of gender deserve representation, critical mass theory is used to explain how tipping points vary per category. Conscientious representation is offered as a means to reach the tipping point. The chapter concludes with the argument that to achieve greater integration of everyone’s point of view is to come closer to a government of the people, by the people, and for the people.

, , , , , , bias employment equity gender gender-equity public-administration women
Gender competencies in MPA programs

Sex and gender are evolving identity categories with emergent public policy and administration needs. To respond to the diverse landscape of sex and gender issues in the public sector, greater competency is needed. This research will contribute to the body of work on sex and gender in public administration by asking the following questions: (a) what do graduate students in Master of Public Administration (MPA) programs know about gender competency, (b) have graduate students learned gender competency in their MPA coursework, and (c) how can gender competency in MPA education be further developed and promoted? This study provides a critical analysis of one MPA program, at John Jay College, City University of New York, to begin this line of research. Our e-survey results of a non-random sample of John Jay MPA students demonstrate that many students do not learn about gender competency through their MPA education and that gender competency skills otherwise obtained are limited. To address this, we emphasize the need for incorporating gender competency into MPA education as the first step in equipping future practitioners with skills to promote gender competency in public policy, administrative decision making, and workplace culture. We provide practical means of achieving greater gender competency in MPA curricula and programming and articulate the importance of expanding this research to other MPA programs, MPA faculty and directors, and geographic regions.

, , , , , , , , , case-studies current-issues ethics foundations-of-pa leadership org-theory pa-theory public-policy research-methods social-equity
Gender competency in public administration education

Sex and gender are evolving identity categories with emergent public policy and administration needs. To respond to the diverse landscape of sex and gender issues in the public sector, greater competency is needed. This research will contribute to the body of work on sex and gender in public administration by asking the following questions: (a) what do graduate students in Master of Public Administration (MPA) programs know about gender competency, (b) have graduate students learned gender competency in their MPA coursework, and (c) how can gender competency in MPA education be further developed and promoted? This study provides a critical analysis of one MPA program, at John Jay College, City University of New York, to begin this line of research. Our e-survey results of a non-random sample of John Jay MPA students demonstrate that many students do not learn about gender competency through their MPA education and that gender competency skills otherwise obtained are limited. To address this, we emphasize the need for incorporating gender competency into MPA education as the first step in equipping future practitioners with skills to promote gender competency in public policy, administrative decision making, and workplace culture. We provide practical means of achieving greater gender competency in MPA curricula and programming and articulate the importance of expanding this research to other MPA programs, MPA faculty and directors, and geographic regions.

, , , , , , , , , case-studies current-issues ethics foundations-of-pa org-theory pa-theory public-policy research-methods social-equity teaching-pa
Gender differences in the leadership styles of MPA directors

A growing body of literature has documented leadership styles by gender. This study examines if directors of Master of Public Administration (MPA) programs accredited by the Network of Schools of Public Policy, Affairs, and Administration exhibit gender differences in leadership styles. Such differences may affect the implementation of public administration and how effective MPA directors are in achieving positive outcomes. Using a mixed methods approach—specifically, exploratory sequential design utilizing qualitative data and analysis, followed by a quantitative survey—we find that there are some gendered differences among public administration directors. In particular, we find that women directors are significantly more likely than their male counterparts to exhibit traits that resemble transformational leaders. However, we also find that male and female directors converge in terms of other styles of leadership.

, , , org-theory pa-theory practitioner-policy-ex social-equity
Gender Equity Commission Priorities: An Archival Study and Prospects for the Future

This research explores the priorities of the gender equity commission in New York City over forty-five years. Archival commission data was organized thematically to understand the history of gender equity and suggest future possibilities for gender equity beyond New York City. In our historical analysis, we see an expansion of the definition of gender and an adoption of an intersectional approach to gender. We identify four historical gender priorities: sexual harassment and violence, pay equity and economic advancement, health and safety, and gender recognition and celebration. To address systemic issues of gender inequity, we recommend local level administrators embed an intersectional approach in their policies and programming and move away from the commission model to one of a permanent office or agency. These recommendations will better equip municipalities with the resources to increase gender equity, particularly during COVID-19 recovery.

, , , , , , equity gender gender-equity public-administration public-policy representative-bureaucracy research
Gender in negotiation: Preparing public administrators for the 21st century workplace

This exploratory study questions whether Master of Public Administration programs prepare future public administrators to how gender plays out in negotiations that occur in organizations. Negotiated Order and Second-Generation Bias perspectives provide the theoretical basis to understand that negotiations in organizations may privilege masculine practices. In light of this gender leaning, the classroom is a necessary incubator for understanding gender differences in negotiation. Curricula and survey response data retrieved from NASPAA accredited MPA programs suggest that gender in negotiation is not being addressed in the MPA classroom. Public managers must negotiate for scarce organizational resources including salary, promotion, and other workplace capital. Recognizing that gender in negotiation remains hidden under the shadow of second-generation bias is the first step to the success of future public administrators. We must begin to educate our future public managers with a distinctive negotiation skillset as they navigate the 21st century workplace.

, , , , , , , , case-studies current-issues foundations-of-pa human-resources org-theory pa-theory practitioner-policy-ex public-policy social-equity
Gender in Public Administration: Looking Back and Moving Forward

In an online virtual issue, we explore the history of gender and feminism since AJPA. It is clear that two major silences exist in public administration concerning gender. The first is the place of women and gender equity within public service workforces. The second silence is the role that feminist theories could play in tackling contemporary public management challenges. We argue that there are particular contributions that feminist theories could make in relation to topics such as collaboration, boundary-spanning and skill requirements for future public sector workers. In this editorial we therefore look backwards and forwards, examining how female public sector workers are defined within state bureaucracy, and what feminism can bring to the functioning of this bureaucracy in the future.

, , , , , employment foundations-of-pa gender gender-equity pa-theory women
Gender, Candidate Emotional Expression, and Voter Reactions During Televised Debates

Voters evaluate politicians not just by what they say, but also how they say it, via facial displays of emotions and vocal pitch. Candidate characteristics can shape how leaders use – and how voters react to – nonverbal cues. Drawing on role congruity expectations, we focus on how gender shapes the use of and reactions to facial, voice, and textual communication in political debates. Using full-length debate videos from four German national elections (2005–2017) and a minor debate in 2017, we employ computer vision, machine learning, and text analysis to extract facial displays of emotion, vocal pitch, and speech sentiment. Consistent with our expectations, Angela Merkel expresses less anger and is less emotive than her male opponents. We combine second-by-second candidate emotions data with continuous responses recorded by live audiences. We find that voters punish Merkel for anger displays and reward her happiness and general emotional displays.

, gender politics
Gender/ing impact assessment: Can it be made to work?

Forms of gender analysis are being introduced worldwide as new methods for achieving gender equality. This paper identifies limitations in dominant frameworks and puts forward suggestions to improve the process. It advances a form of deep evaluation to institutionalize conceptual analysis as a part of policy design. It also proposes the development of a Gendering Impact Assessment model that attends to the ways in which policy produces gender, and that has the potential to put in question the strategic norms of broad policy objectives.

, , , , , equality equity gender gender-equity lgbt lgbtq
Governance in Dark Times: Practical Philosophy for Public Service

nspired by Hannah Arendt and several other philosophers, Governance in Dark Times is the first book to explore the philosophical and value underpinnings needed to guide public servants in these times. Featuring down-to-earth discussions of such issues as terrorism, torture, and homeland security, it suggests ways for people in government to think more deeply, judge more wisely, and act more meaningfully. Camilla Stivers argues that the most urgent requirement in dark times is re-kindling what Arendt called “the light of the public,” and offers practical steps for public servants to create spaces for citizen dialogue and engagement in public life. Ideas like “governance of the common ground” and “public service as social hope” will spark discussion and encourage renewed dedication to the work of governing.

, ethics practitioner-policy-ex
How do healthy eating and active living policies influence the potential for a community’s healthy behavior? The case of Mississippi State

A community’s health can be enhanced through access to healthy eating and active living which, in turn, can be supported through the built environment. While local and state governments have taken active steps toward promoting healthy communities, efforts of encouraging healthy eating and active living have not reached their full potential. The state of Mississippi is known as “the fattest state” in the United states and one of the factors that has led to such a classification is related to the way development occurs throughout the state. Drawing on a case study approach, the purpose of this study is to describe how local policy efforts can influence the potential for healthy eating and active living in the state of Mississippi. The paper examines the content of existing municipal comprehensive plans in terms of goals, objectives and policies related to healthy eating and active living over a 15-year time-frame (2000 – 2015).

current-issues
How does diversity affect public organizational performance? A meta‐analysis

Research in public administration examining the effects of diversity on public organizational performance has produced mixed results. However, the lack of a comprehensive theoretical framework has failed to provide an explanation for the mixed diversity effects. This study introduces a systematic analytical model, Categorization‐Elaboration Model (CEM), to help identify the contextual constructs which can promote the positive effects of diversity on public organizational performance. A meta‐analysis is conducted on 37 quantitative studies to test the empirical validity of a CEM constructed theoretical model with 253 effect sizes which will promote a better understanding of the circumstances or contexts that lead to the benefits of diversity within public sector organizations. The empirical results of meta‐regression point to the appropriate range of contextual factors which can alleviate the potential negative effects of diversity and promote its overall positive effects. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

, , , , , , academia advocacy diversity org-theory pa-theory public-administration research
How non-binary gender definitions confound (already complex) thinking about gender and public policy

A course on gender and public policy can introduce students to methods of policy analysis in the context of social-justice problems. Using a combination of empirical studies and analytic tools, students learn how social conditions and policies differentially affect women and men, and they can identify implications for gender equity. But our world includes non-binary gender types—transgender, genderqueer, and intersex people (some of whom are our students). How can an analysis built on strictly binary comparisons be reconfigured to include more gender diversity? The answers depend in part on how gender is conceptualized (is it a fixed, measurable dimension of identity or something socially constructed?). Exploring three conceptual approaches to gender, this article identifies three more inclusive teaching and research strategies: the expansion of gender types in quantitative analysis, the consideration of non-binary gender social roles, and the interrogation of binary inequalities assumed to be natural and inevitable.

, , , , gender gender-equity pa-theory policy public-administration
How promising is the Second Chance Act in reducing recidivism among male ex-offenders in Alabama, Georgia and Mississippi?

This study examines the effectiveness of reentry programs as provided by the Second Chance Act of 2007 in reducing recidivism among ex-offender males in the southern states of Alabama, Georgia, and Mississippi. Drawing on secondary data coming mainly from the
Bureau of Justice Statistics the study uses multivariate analysis to assess the factors that explain recidivism, and evaluate the impact of the Second Chance legislation on recidivism among young adult males in the three states. Findings indicate that imprisoned Black and
Hispanic males, as well as median household income are significant predictors of recidivism. Additionally, the study finds that, three years after its implementation, the Second Chance Act has achieved significant recidivism reduction among males in two of the
three states under study (Georgia and Mississippi), and it is, therefore, a promising legislation for decreasing criminal recidivism.

social-equity
Identities, Internationality, and Otherness: The Social Constructions of Deservedness in American Housing Policy

This paper examines how considerations of otherness and intersectionality could advance the theory of Social Construction and Policy Design. The paper utilizes housing policy and discrimination as its context to demonstrate how pluralistic sources of power and intersectional identities shape patterns of neighborhood segregation and lived experiences. While passage of the Fair Housing Act in 1968 marked a watershed moment, the administrative struggle to implement that law reflects the pervasive challenges of otherness particularly when current frames and constructions do not allow policymakers to consider certain populations that may be impacted or marginalized. The author investigates how government, private, and individual actions have normalized otherness, both responding to and reinforcing intersectional and complex conceptions of group identities over time. A more thorough examination of intersectionality and normalizing power can enhance the Social Construction lens to more authentically and truthfully empower action and present a path forward.

, housing-policy social-construction
Improving transgender policy for a more equitable workplace

Sex and gender categories have become more fluid in recent years. With evolving understandings of sexual orientation and gender identity, public administrators are confronted with questions of how to craft policy and make decisions based on new conceptions of sex and gender for transgender employees. Policy and practice is especially challenging in the workplace where sex and gender encompass both personal and professional dimensions. Within the public sector, the federal government is recognized as a leader on these issues, and this work examines federal transgender policy to answer the following questions: 1) how are federal agencies addressing transgender issues in the workplace through formal policy? and 2) what can be done to improve future transgender policy? To gain a better understanding of what constitutes an effective transgender workplace policy, we conducted a qualitative content analysis of nine transgender plans from the following federal agencies: Consumer Financial Protection Bureau, Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, Internal Revenue Service, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, United States Office of Special Counsel, United States Department of Interior, United States Department of Labor, United States Environmental Protection Agency, and United States Office of Personnel Management. Our analysis includes the identification of major themes within the nine policy documents. From this analysis, we propose best practices and future policy directions, as well as suggest ways of expanding the limited scholarship on transgender issues in the public sector.

, , , , , , , , , , case-studies current-issues ethics human-resources org-theory pa-theory practitioner-policy-ex public-policy research-methods social-equity teaching-pa
In Search of Social Equity in Public Administration: Race, Gender, and Some “Class”-ey New Ideas

We find ourselves once again in a state of war. A literal war churns in Eastern Europe—the materialization of imperialistic ambitions by an aggressive nation, or perhaps just the result of its communist dictator’s effort to cement himself in the history books. While not yet formally declared by nations beyond Russia and Ukraine, this war is being fought in the hearts of people the world over. We grieve for the innocents struggling to defend themselves against a larger and better-supplied aggressor. It is a true David and Goliath story, with one giant nation shattering the global status quo to pursue its evil ambitions. Nations large and small are rallying to oppose such action through economic, political, and social sanctions in hopes that global war might be avoided. They hope that such measures will dissuade the hungry bear from its gluttonous pursuits. I fear that bear will only be further empowered by such weak and indirect resistance, and once Ukraine has been consumed, its appetite will turn to other targets just as a bear acclimated to human society learns to return to the same campground for a snack. I also fear that our world will be more clearly divided as a result: East versus West, Capitalist versus Communist, and Democracy versus Autocracy. Opportunity-seeking dictators may view this disruption as a cue to act on their own imperialistic ambitions.

, , , equity gender gender-equity social-equity
Inclusive work practices: Turnover intentions among LGBT employees of the U.S. federal government

The federal government lags behind in progressive civil rights policies in regard to universal workplace antidiscrimination laws for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) Americans. The slow progress matters to inclusionary workplace practices and the theory and practice of public administration generally, as recognition of LGBT rights and protection are constitutive of representative bureaucracy and promoting social equity. This study examines the turnover intention rates of self-identified LGBT employees in the U.S. federal government. Using the Office of Personnel Management’s inclusion quotient (IQ), and 2015 Federal Employee Viewpoint Survey (FEVS), we identify links in the relationships between workplace inclusion and turnover outcomes among LGBT individuals. We also examine the impact of agency type on LGBT turnover rates based on Lowi’s agency classification type. Key findings suggest that LGBT employees express higher turnover intentions than those that identify as heterosexuals/straight, and LGBT employees who perceive their agencies as redistributive or communal are less likely to experience turnover intentions. However, an open and supportive workplace environment had a positive impact on turnover, suggesting that to implement effective structural change in an organization’s culture of inclusion, public sector managers must do more than merely “talk the talk.” This finding is also suggestive of LGBT employees’ desire to avoid the stigma of being LGBT and hide their identities. Institutions must heed the invisible and visible identities of their employees to be truly inclusive. Workplace practices that acknowledge the invisible and visible identities of their employees are a positive step toward real workplace inclusion.

human-resources
Inclusive work practices: Turnover intentions among LGBT employees of the U.S. federal government

Social Equity, Social Movement, LGBTQ+

, , , , , , , , , case-studies current-issues ethics human-resources org-theory pa-theory practitioner-policy-ex public-policy social-equity teaching-pa
Indicators of Higher Education Equity in the United States: 45 Year Trend Report

In 1947 – the mid-point of the 20th Century – Harry S. Truman warned in a report of his Commission on Higher Education, “
If the ladder of educational opportunity rises high at the doors of some youth and scarcely rises at the doors of others, while at the same time formal education is made a prerequisite to occupational and social advance, then education may become the means, not of eliminating race and class distinctions, but of deepening and solidifying them.”1 Now over 60 years later – well into the 21st century – these words read as an eerie foreshadowing to the state of higher education in the United States today.

, , academia equity social-equity
Individual and community level determinants of public attitudes toward nonprofit organizations

It is often suggested that nonprofit organizations positively impact our local communities. Studies, however, have consistently shown that the distribution of these organizations varies considerably from one community to the next. These differences have led some scholars to begin raising serious concern about the degree of “charitable equity” across communities. Thus, the purpose of this study was to explore how the makeup of a community’s nonprofit sector affects the views of those who potentially depend on nonprofit services. Specifically, using data from a countywide survey of public attitudes toward nonprofits in southern California (N = 1,002), we examined whether differences in the distribution of nonprofits affected individuals’ confidence in nonprofit performance as well as their awareness of what nonprofit organizations even are. Findings indicated that nonprofit density was strongly related to awareness of the sector, while awareness was, in turn, strongly related to confidence in nonprofit performance.

social-equity
Inequality: Underrepresentation of African American Males in U.S. Higher Education

Although the percentage of Blacks earning college degrees has nearly doubled over the past 20years, Blacks earn only 10% of college degrees, 12% of graduate degrees, and 7% of doctoral degrees (U.S. Census Bureau, 2013). Furthermore, Blacks are more likely to attend lower-quality institutions and less likely to graduate (Mettler, 2014). This translates into possibly fewer Black men completing degrees in public affairs education and seeking public service. If we are to secure a representative bureaucracy (Krislov, 2013; Naff, 2001) in which both public administrators and college faculty mirror the nation’s demographics, then we must ensure that Black males have equal access to an affordable, quality college education resulting in degree completion. In this article, we examine disparities in higher education along three procedural areas: (a) access, (b) affordability, and (c) attainment. We provide substantive policy recommendations toward ensuring both access and degree attainment for all individuals regardless of race or income.

, , , , , academia african-american equality equity gender gender-equity
Integrating emotive competencies in public affairs education

Emotion is the “how” of NASPAA competencies related to leading and managing in a culturally-conscious manner. In this article, we describe the role of emotion in public service and we detail the mechanism by which emotion fosters a collective mind-set for effective public service leadership and cultural literacy. We indicate specifically where emotive competencies could be integrated into the foundational skills demanded of all graduates of accredited programs. We further argue that they should be integrated into MPA core curricula. This normative argument captures the ethics of emotional labor: To graduate students from MPA programs without emotive capacities is to leave them poorly equipped for the practice of public service and to do so would be unethical. To demonstrate what is possible in public affairs education, we turn to an example from the Government of India Civil Service Competency Dictionary for a framework of emotive competencies in human resource management.

, education public-affairs
Intersectionality and Social Welfare: Avoidance and Unequal Treatment among Transgender Women of Color

This research adds to the emergent literature on intersectionality and public administration through examining how transgender women of color (trans WOC) are interacting with U.S. social welfare offices. It is our contention that trans WOC, facing a compounded set of negative stereotypes derived from racial and gender identities, will be more likely than other transgender identifying persons to: (1) avoid seeking out public welfare benefits and (2) be more likely to report experiencing discriminatory treatment in social welfare offices. Using data from the 2015 U.S. Transgender Survey we uncover evidence that trans WOC are more likely to avoid social welfare offices and face discrimination in social welfare offices. Scholars and administrators of social welfare programs, including Social Security related benefits, should be aware of the potential for public benefit avoidance and administrative discrimination directed toward historically marginalized groups and prioritize social equity considerations among clients facing compounded intersectional barriers.

, , , , , , , , , , african-american communities-of-color discrimination diversity gender gender-equity inclusion lgbt lgbtq social-equity women
Intersectionality and Social Welfare: Avoidance and Unequal Treatment among Transgender Women of Color

This research seeks adds to the emergent literature on intersectionality and public administration through examining how transgender women of color (trans WOC) are interacting with U.S. social welfare offices. It is our contention that trans WOC, facing a compounded set of negative stereotypes derived from racial and gender identities, will be more likely than other transgender identifying persons to: 1) avoid seeking out public welfare benefits, and 2) be more likely to report experiencing discriminatory treatment in social welfare offices. Using data from the 2015 U.S. Transgender Survey we uncover evidence that trans WOC are more likely to avoid social welfare offices and face discrimination in social welfare offices. Scholars and administrators of social welfare programs, including Social Security related benefits, should be aware of the potential for public benefit avoidance and administrative discrimination directed toward historically marginalized groups, and prioritize social equity considerations among clients facing compounded intersectional barriers.

, , , , , , , , , , , , civil-rights communities-of-color discrimination equity gender-equity lgbtq public-administration public-policy race racial-equity social-justice stereotypes women
Introducing the Institutional (D) Evolution Framework to examine policies and practicies regarding sexual orientation

The United States is undergoing a trnasformation in perceptions of, and policies toward, sexual orientation. As of March 2013, 49 percent of adults support same-sex marriage, compared with 33 percent in 2003, representing one of the largest swings in public opinion in the past decade (PEW Research, 2013). These changes are apparent at all levels of society from the individual and family to local and national governments: however, fully conseptualizing the status and scope of such changes is challenging. One primary purpose of this paper is to introduce the Institutional (D) Evolution Farmework (IEF), which classifies social and governmental institutions as they move through states of being based on individual-level knowledge acquisition and reflection broadened from Sementelli’s map of the individual (2012). This framework acknowledges multiple levels of, and interactions betweem, government and social institutions and is generalizable to an array of issues. Our second purpose is to apply the IEF to assess the evolution in the institutions respective to issues of sexual orientation within the United States.

, , , current-issues pa-theory public-policy social-equity
Introduction to the forum

Sexual oreintation and governance in public administration

, pa-theory social-equity
Invisible Populations and the #MeToo Movement

The #MeTook movement has done a great deal to address sexual abuse and violence. There is no doubt that justice may occur when the right person speaks out. However, what happens when the wrong people- that is, people of color, the working class women, and transgender people- speak out on the same issue? When these “wrong people” do speak out, they are discredited, marginalized, and silence by being ignored. This viewpoint essay addresses two populations that have been overlooked by the #MeToo movement: women of color and transgender people. The essay concludes with recommendations for how the movement can move forward given the criticisms around the absence of diversity and transparency.

, , , civil-rights gender-equity public-administration public-policy
Is active representation an organizational-level process? The indirect effect of bureaucrats on clients they don’t directly serve

A now well-established link exists between passive representation of racial and gender minorities in certain bureaucracies and substantive benefits for the represented groups. However, few quantitative studies have distinguished between the multiple possible mechanisms by which passive representation might produce such effects. We conduct a novel set of empirical analyses aimed at determining whether or not passive representation produces effects only for those clients who directly interact with bureaucrats who share their demographic characteristics or if passive representation produces broader organizational-level effects. We find strong evidence that minority clients’ outcomes are positively associated with representation in portions of the bureaucracy with which they do not directly interact. This suggests that either passive representation produces substantial bottom-up, organizational-level effects or that managers who recruit minority personnel also adopt policies that are favorable toward minority clients.

public-policy
Is Representation Enough? Racial Disparities in Levels of Force and Arrests by Police

The research in representative bureaucracy that examines the extent to which racial congruence impacts bureaucrats’ decisions in mixed. This study adds to this literature by examining the impact of representative bureaucracy on the level of force that police officers use and whether they make an arrest in use of force encounters, while taking into consideration key situationsal conditions. Using individual-level data from New Orleans to estimate this imoact, the authors find that racial congruence and incongreunce impact policing outcomes even in the prescence of situational shortcuts theat cue decision-making. The findings show that benefits of representation are conditiional on the outcome.

, public-policy racial-equity
Is There a Glass Cliff in Local Government Management? Examining the Hiring and Departure of Women

Women are underrepresented in public sector leadership positions, including municipal management. We examine one explanation that may contribute to gender inequity in the profession – a “glass cliff” phenomenon whereby councils are more likely to hire women as managers during difficult times, increasing the likelihood for women to fail in the position. Using original observational data on municipal managers in Florida, we test whether municipalities are more likely to hire women during times of fiscal stress and whether women are more likely than men to leave the position if municipal finances do not improve. Our results show that increasing budget deficits are associated with municipalities hiring women as managers. Post-appointment, a lack of improvement in the deficit condition is associated with a higher probability of women, but not men, leaving the position. A glass cliff in municipal management could be one factor that hinders women from advancing within the field.

, , , , civil-rights equity gender gender-equity women
Legitimacy as property and process: The case of an Irish LGBT organization

This study provides insight into the changing normative judgements of civil society organizations over time through the concept of legitimacy. A case study of an LGBT organization in Ireland over the past 40 years shows how a process of legitimation took place in five steps: refuge, advocacy, formalization, impact, and organizational survival. The initial stigmatization of the organization’s core purpose created opportunities for social capital to grow, which, ironically, helped to initiate the process of legitimation. In the end, pragmatic legitimacy waned after the organization achieved impact and was successful in its mission. This organizational perspective on civil society and on a history of LGBT rights contributes to understanding the legitimacy of civil society organizations, actors which influence change in normative judgements over time. Treating legitimacy as both a property and a process highlights how these organizations can be simultaneously subjects of normative judgement and also agents of change.

, case-studies org-theory
LGBT homeless youth and policing

LGBT homeless youth are a particularly vulnerable population, accounting for 20–40% of all homeless youth. Literature demonstrates that these youth are disproportionately involved in the criminal justice system. Involvement in the justice system frequently begins with a police contact, about which relatively little is understood. Fear of the police among LGBT homeless youth is likely common, and police may be ill-equipped to interact with and assist these youth, even when programs specific to improving police-LGBT relations are present. The present exploratory study examines how LGBT homeless youth and police interact by presenting findings from 18 interviews with formerly homeless LGBT youths (now adults), LGBT advocates, and police officers. Findings reveal that fear of the police and reports of discriminatory actions by police are common, LGBT youth have difficulty accessing services, and police often report being limited in how they can help this population.

, , , , , case-studies current-issues ethics practitioner-policy-ex public-policy social-equity
LGBTQ alumni philanthropy: Exploring (un)conscious motivations for giving related to identity and experiences

Using a constructivist case study analysis, we explore philanthropy toward higher education among lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) alumni, examining how a person’s LGBTQ identity and experiences (un)consciously affects his, her, or hir1 decision to give philanthropically. Data come from focus groups with 37 advancement staff and 23 LGBTQ alumni at two research extensive universities. Findings reveal unconscious influences of LGBTQ identities on giving, importance of campus climate for LGBTQ individuals, and LGBTQ alumni affinity group involvement. We draw implications from our findings, discussing the need to create a warm campus climate for current students, increase and encourage involvement within LGBTQ affinity groups, systematize data collection to include LGBTQ identities, and develop culturally sensitive solicitations.

case-studies
Living on the Margings Beyond Gender Binaries: What are the Challenges to Securing Rights: Public Integrity

This article identifies the extent to which deeply embedded ideas and beliefs about the innate normalcy of the man/woman gender binary feed longstanding attitudes against those persons whose gender identity is believed to be aberrant and pathological. The discrimination directed at LGBTQ + persons creates inequities that deepen their social marginalization and push them further away from the exercise of constitutional rights. This article urges public administration to create effective interventions to eliminate the racism and gender-identity hate and discrimination that continue to place an unfair burden on especially LGBTQ+ Black, Indigenous and other Persons of Color (BIPOC).

, , , civil-rights gender-equity public-administration public-policy
Maintaining Male Exclusivity: Porcelain Privilege in the Military

Current debates about bathrooms and bathroom policy contribute to a long history of how space shapes norms and expectations about privacy and gender equity in the workplace. The military serves as a significant site of discussion, particularly as the Department of Defense moves forward with efforts to integrate women into combat positions. Relying on an analysis of 27 focus groups with a total of 198 participants we collected from Special Operations in the U.S. Army, we examine bathrooms as a site where male soldiers contest and resist female integration. Using Sasson-Levy and Katz’s concept of institutional de-gendering and re-gendering, we argue that men’s resistance to gender-neutral toilets is an effort to re-gender Special Forces and maintain the hegemonic masculine culture that acutely defines it.

, , gender-equity public-policy representation
Making the invisible visible in nonprofit courses: A case study of African American-led nonprofits

Examining minority-led nonprofit organizations provides an opportunity to promote cultural competency education within nonprofit specializations. This case study, which focuses on three African American-led nonprofits, serves as an educational resource to examine 1) leadership and mission, 2) program and service delivery, and 3) impacts and outcomes. Common characteristics across these organizations include strong ties to their respective communities, programs that embed cultural awareness, and positive outcomes among the youth served. This case study provides a resource to make African American-led organizations more visible in nonprofit and public affairs courses.

, , , , african-american cultural-competency leaders nonprofit youth
Managerial Practice and Diversity Climate: The Roles of Workplace Voice, Centralization, and Teamwork

Diversity climate—shared employee perceptions of the extent to which an organization is inclusive and fair—is of increasing interest to public administration scholars. While research has linked diversity climate to a range of employee and organizational outcomes, less is known about how common managerial practices affect diversity climate. This article addresses this gap by examining three such practices: workplace voice, centralized decision-making, and teamwork. Each is theoretically expected to act upon both the inclusion and fairness dimensions of diversity climate. We test these expectations using regression analysis of departmental-level data collected through surveys of four North Carolina public organizations. The results suggest that workplace voice and teamwork enhance diversity climate, while centralized decision-making diminishes it in workplaces with mostly white employees. Practically speaking, the results imply that common management techniques that benefit public organizations also foster positive diversity climates.

, , , , , bias diversity eeoc employment inclusion leadership
Maternity Leave: Policy and Practice, 2nd ed.

What does it mean to be a successful working parent? And how do working parents cope in the United States, the only developed nation with no paid parental leave requirement? Despite some positive advancement in the voluntary adoption of paid parental leave, many organizations over the past 25 years have instead decreasedpaid leave benefits offered to employees in the US, choosing instead to let unpaid leave under the Family Medical Leave Act serve in its place. This regression in practice is perhaps the greatest unintended consequence of FMLA, and surely was not the intent of Congress. Maternity Leave: Policy and Practice, Second Edition approaches parental leave from a variety of perspectives: legal, political, social, institutional, organizational, and most importantly, from the personal perspectives of the women and men interviewed expressly for the book.

, current-issues human-resources
Maternity Leave: Policy and Practice, 2nd ed.

What does it mean to be a successful working parent? And how do working parents cope in the United States, the only developed nation with no paid parental leave requirement? Despite some positive advancement in the voluntary adoption of paid parental leave, many organizations over the past 25 years have instead decreased paid leave benefits offered to employees in the United States, choosing instead to let unpaid leave under the Family Medical Leave Act (FMLA) serve in its place. This regression in practice is perhaps the greatest unintended consequence of FMLA and surely was not the intent of Congress. Maternity Leave: Policy and Practice, Second Edition approaches parental leave from a variety of perspectives: legal, political, social, institutional, organizational, and, most importantly, from the personal perspectives of the women and men interviewed expressly for the book.

, current-issues human-resources
Money talks or millennials walk: The effect of compensation on nonprofit millennial workers sector-switching intentions

The nonprofit sector has become increasingly reliant on paid professional staff and now faces competition from the private and public sectors, which often pay higher to attract and retain workers. Although Millennials are attracted to nonprofit work, there are concerns that they will not remain committed to the nonprofit workforce due to low pay. We analyzed data from the 2011 Young Nonprofit Professionals Network Survey to examine the relationship between pay, perceptions of equitable pay, and sector-switching intentions among Millennial nonprofit workers. Although two thirds of the respondents indicate sector-switching intentions, we found no evidence that Millennial nonprofit workers, who are purported to value extrinsic and materialistic rewards, expressed sector-switching intentions on account of pay. However, pay influences the sector-switching intentions of Millennial nonprofit managers and those with advanced education. Our results suggest that the nonprofit sector may be facing challenges in attracting and retaining Millennial managers because of low pay.

, human-resources org-theory
Moral readings of the court: Discrimination cases in the U.S. Supremre Court

What moral readings characterize contemporary U.S. Supreme Court opinions on discrimination by race; ethnicity; religion; gender; sexuality; and disabilities? John Rohr and the Constitutional School of Public Administration scholars have analyzed the Supreme Court’s decisions for moral insights in public affairs. The authors sought to take a modest step with analysis based on a more nuanced, empirical moral reading of the Court’s cases. First, the authors critiqued the case-study method of the Constitutional School, comparing these with moral readings of the Court’s opinion, including moral justifications that are teleological and nonteleological. Second, the authors analyzed selected opinions by the contemporary Supreme Court on discrimination by race; ethnicity; religion; gender; sexuality; and disabilities. Third, the authors analyzed patterns of teleological (utilitarian or virtue) and nonteleological (deontological) moral justifications and concluded the Supreme Court ordinarily uses ethical arguments, often teleological (utilitarian), with nonteleological (deontological) justifications in cases of perceived injustice. Virtue moral justifications are rare: only with a nonvirtuous litigant. Thus, the authors meld a more nuanced, empirical moral reading with the traditional case-study method of the Constitutional School of Public Administration, without assuming appeal to some universal moral faculty—instead deferring to each person in accepting or rejecting these moral justifications.

, , , , case-studies ethics practitioner-policy-ex public-policy social-equity
Moving beyond discretion and outcomes: Examining public management from the front lines of the welfare system

This article investigates front-line conditions within two sectors charged with the delivery of social welfare programs public bureaucracies and private contractors. I examine two traditions of public management that operate in these organizations and focus on how each tries to direct front-line action. Drawing upon ethnographic data, I discover a disjuncture between these management frameworks and day-to-day front-line operations. A body of social theory that posits that individuals both create and are constrained by social structures is used to understand these findings. The application of this theory both suggests that there is an ongoing social process not capitalized upon by existing management approaches and offers a new explanation for the persistence of certain management challenges in these sectors. The article concludes with a discussion of research propositions and management techniques that emerge from this inductive analysis.

, ethics pa-theory
Municipalities as public relations and marketing firms

This article offers a metaphorical image of U. S. municipalities as public relations (PR) and marketing firms. Cities are practicing many of the same promotional and image-generation techniques as private-sector PR firms use with a desire for the same ends—increased consumption of goods and services, which in this case come from cities and not from private-sector businesses. The image presented here is based on six tactics that public organizations use to sell themselves to diverse audience bases. The tactics include branding, media relations, in-house publications (three prevalent tactics), use of outside organizations and volunteers as PR tools, public art, and built environment via sustainability (three uncommon tactics). The article asserts that image generation in a city acting as a PR and marketing firm is a consequence of the market models of governance, bringing postmodern public administration critiques to fruition.

, , current-issues leadership pa-theory
National Police Reform Commissions: Evidence-Based Practices or Unfulled Promises?

This study examines whether the race and ethnicity of the individual filing a police misconduct allegation in Chicago predicts whether the allegation was (1) sustained, (2) not sustained, (3) determined to be unfounded (not factual), or (4) whether the accused police officer was exonerated of any wrongdoing. Multinomial logistic regression results show that Black and Hispanic complainants are much less likely to have their allegations of police misconduct sustained. When compared to a sustained outcome, Black complainants are 4.7 times more likely to receive a not sustained outcome, 3.6 times more apt to receive an unfounded outcome, and 4.2 times more likely that their misconduct allegation will culminate in the exoneration of the police officer. Results also show that a Hispanic complainant is 1.6 times less apt to achieve a favorable outcome in his or her case alleging misconduct by a police officer. These findings suggest that more work still needs to be done to reduce racial disparity in the resolution of allegations of police misconduct in Chicago.

, communities-of-color police-reform
Nonprofit Density and Distributional Equity in Public Service Provision: Exploring Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Public Park Access across U.S. Cities

Existing research on the distributional impacts of nonprofits and philanthropy focuses on how different groups directly benefit from nonprofit service providers. Given the increasing roles nonprofits play in public service provision and urban governance, it is critical to examine how the nonprofit sector may influence the distribution of public services. Combining the literature from urban affairs and nonprofit studies, we propose a theoretical framework to articulate various pathways through which communities with a larger nonprofit sector may create favorable conditions for public services to be distributed to certain racial–ethnic groups. We further test this framework using a unique geospatial dataset of public park access by different racial–ethnic groups in 2,392 U.S. cities. Our findings indicate that communities with a higher density of park-supporting nonprofits generate better park access for all racial–ethnic groups. However, more benefits accrue to whites than to other racial–ethnic groups.

, , , , , , , , , , benefits bias communities-of-color discrimination equality equity human-resources nonprofit public-administration public-affairs social-vulnerability
Nonprofit Journals Publication Patterns: Visibility or Invisibility of Gender?

Publication patterns contribute to a cyclical pattern—what gets written influences what gets read, taught, cited, and pursued for further research. This study examined 30 years of scholarship in three leading nonprofit journals for trends in how women, men, and gender (WMG) are included in “front page” material (titles, abstracts, keywords). The study highlights promising improvements in the inclusion of women as both subject focus and scholars. While only a small portion of the front page sections listed attention to WMG, women are more likely to be an identified focus/finding than men, and WMG articles are more likely to have a woman first author. The research also found that WMG articles are more likely to be in three key areas: volunteering, fundraising, and board/governance. Attention to WMG in these areas is notable, but perhaps expected given historical nonprofit gender dynamics. Expansion of attention in other curricular areas would reinforce the importance of equity and inclusion values within nonprofit scholarship.

, , , , academia equality gender nonprofit women
Organizational Practices and Second-Generation Gender Bias: A Qualitative Inquiry into the Career Progression of U.S. State-Level Managers

Ely and Meyerson’s gendered organizations framework reconceptualizes traditional gender differences defined by biology and lack of structural opportunities, to a complex set of social relations in the workplace. We apply this framework to second-generation gender bias to further understand impediments to women’s career progression in the public sector workplace. In-depth interviews of state-level administrators in U.S. public sector agencies indicate that “narratives” perpetuate second-generation gender bias that is deeply ingrained in organizational practices and policies, especially for women and women of color. This framework can be applied to future studies examining the gendered nature of organizations in different workplace settings. Moving beyond already identified barriers, this study offers a comprehensive framework to understand how second-generation gender bias is central to long-standing workplace inequities.

, , , gender gender-equity org-theory organizational-equity
Organizational red tape: A measurement experiment

Multiple public administration survey research projects have asked respondents to assess the level of red tape in their organizations. Many of these surveys use the following questionnaire item: “If red tape is defined as ‘burdensome rules and procedures that have negative effects on the organization’s effectiveness,’ how would you assess the level of red tape in your organization?” Unfortunately, no research has tested the ways in which the language used in this item may bias responses. This research uses data from a 2010 national survey of 2,500 local government managers in the United States to test three variations of the Organizational Red Tape scale, investigating whether there is variation in perceived organizational red tape based on the question wording. The findings from this research contribute to the red tape literature by providing empirical evidence that the definition used in the Organizational Red Tape scale, a commonly used questionnaire item in public administration research, influences responses about red tape perceptions.

, , , ethics org-theory pa-theory public-policy
PAR’s social equity footprint

During the 75th anniversary of Public Administration Review (PAR), this article examines the social equity scholarship published in PAR from 1940 to 2013. Less than 5 percent of all articles published in PAR since its inception focus on social equity. The articles published in PAR are primarily concentrated within the areas of personnel and public policy. Very few articles were published in the areas of budgeting or ethics. While social equity scholarship published in PAR has made a valuable contribution to understanding the career inequities of women and minorities in the public sector, scholars and professionals need to more thoroughly examine the black box of agency practice and structural inequities to examine why they persist. The challenge for future social equity research in public administration is to examine broader dimensions of equity and to understand how social inequities in administration can be mitigated.

social-equity
Police use of force interactions: Is race relevant or gender germane?

Representative bureaucracy research has examined the influence of race and ethnicity on policing outcomes, yet little is known about police use of force specifically at the individual-level. To address this topic more meticulously, we utilize individual-level data (from Indianapolis and Dallas police departments) to explore differences in the amount of force used by officers in ethnic, racial, and gender matches in police–civilian dyads. Findings suggest that there are heightened levels of force used when there is racial and gender incongruenc between the officer and the civilian, particularly White officers interacting with Black civilians. We discuss how this finding may impact police departments moving forward.

, , , bias policy race representative-bureaucracy
Policy Paradox: The Art of Political Decision Making Chapter One Summary

The author begins with the statement “A theory of policy politics must start with a model of political society, that is, a model of the simplest version of society that retains the essential elements of politics.” She chooses the word Greek word “polis”, which means city-state. This word is fitting because it describes an entity small enough to have very simple forms of organization yet large enough to embody the elements of politics. In searching for the elements of politics, it is helpful to use the market model as a foil because of its predominance in contemporary policy discussions. The contrast between the models of political and market society will illuminate the ways the market model grossly distorts political life.

, , , , equality ethics policy public-administration public-policy
Poverty, Policy, and Federal Administrative Discourse: Are Bureaucrats Speaking Equitable Antipoverty Policy Designs into Existence?

Non-elected, non-appointed federal employees, referred to as bureucrats, are among the many policy actors that participate in policy discourse. This article investigates whether bureaucrats’ administrative discourse promotes economic equality, as Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. envisioned. Based on a qualitative analysis of data from congressional testimonies (n=34) before and after the enactment of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996, this study discusses the role of public administrators as contributors to welfare policy discourse and the resulting implcations for the fight for equality and equal citizenship.

, equity public-policy
Providing solutions to LGBT homeless youth: Lessons from Baltimore’s youth empowered society

In the United States, nearly 1.7 million youth under the age of 18 run away from home and often end up homeless each year. Reports estimate that between 20% and 40% of the runaway and homeless youth population identifies as lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT) (Durso & Gates, 2012 Durso, L. E., & Gates, G. J. (2012). Serving our youth: Findings from a national survey of service providers working with lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender youth who are homeless or at risk of becoming homeless. Retrieved from https://williamsinstitute.law.ucla.edu/wp-content/uploads/Durso-Gates-LGBT-Homeless-Youth-Survey-July-2012.pdf [Google Scholar]; Kaiser Family Foundation, 2014 Kaiser Family Foundation. (2014). Health and access to care and coverage for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender individuals in the U.S. Retrieved from http://files.kff.org/attachment/Issue-Brief-Health-and-Access-to-Care-and-Coverage-for-LGBT-Individuals-in-the-US [Google Scholar]). This suggests that as many as 80,000 LGBT youth are homeless for over a week each year (National Alliance to End Homelessness, 2012 National Alliance to End Homelessness. (2012). LGBTQ youth national policy statement. Retrieved from http://www.endhomelessness.org/page/-/files/4552_file_LGBTQ_Youth_National_Policy_Statement_April_2012_Final.pdf [Google Scholar]). In addition, LGBT youth are more likely to suffer from poverty, substance abuse, violence, mental illness, and attempted suicide as a result of harassment and discrimination (Cray, Miller, & Durso, 2013 Cray, A., Miller, K., & Durso, L. (2013). Seeking shelter: The experiences and unmet needs of LGBT homeless youth. Retrieved from https://cdn.americanprogress.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/09/LGBTHomelessYouth.pdf [Google Scholar]; Kaiser Family Foundation, 2014 Kaiser Family Foundation. (2014). Health and access to care and coverage for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender individuals in the U.S. Retrieved from http://files.kff.org/attachment/Issue-Brief-Health-and-Access-to-Care-and-Coverage-for-LGBT-Individuals-in-the-US [Google Scholar]; Swan, 2014 Swan, W. (2014). Gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender civil rights: A public policy agenda for uniting a divided America. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. doi:10.1201/b17485[Crossref] , [Google Scholar]). Grounded in social equity theory (Frederickson, 2010 Frederickson, H. G. (2010). Social equity and public administration: Origins, developments and applications. New York, NY: Routledge. doi:10.4324/9781315700748[Crossref] , [Google Scholar]) and intersectionality (Crenshaw, 1991 Crenshaw, K. (1991). Mapping the margins: Intersectionality, identity politics, and violence against women of color. Stanford Law Review, 43(6), 1241–1299. doi:10.2307/1229039[Crossref] , [Google Scholar]), this article argues that additional legal protections are necessary in order to ensure the constitutional rights of LGBT youth. A case study of the Youth Empowered Society (YES) in Baltimore City is provided as an example of a service-delivery model for this vulnerable population. Best practices are identified and anti-discrimination policies are recommended.

, , , , case-studies current-issues ethics practitioner-policy-ex social-equity
Public administration’s ethical dilemma: Homeless LGBT youth in the twenty-first century

Shared workplace experiences of lesbian and gay police officers in the United Kingdom

, , , , , , current-issues ethics foundations-of-pa pa-theory public-policy social-equity teaching-pa
Public administration: Traditions of inquiry and philosophies of knowledge

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Public administrators’ use of social media platforms: Overcoming the legitimacy dilemma?

Previous research incorporates Habermas’ theory of communicative action with implications of social media for public discourse, yet few studies consider the theory’s relevance and applicability to public administrators. This article addresses this weak link by focusing on the administration legitimacy dilemma. While social media can be useful to public administrators facilitating collaborative interactions with citizens, these platforms are not automatically suited to public participation in governance. Habermas’ theory offers a framework for understanding these possibilities and challenges, as well as adapting social media constructively to administrative practice.

, , current-issues leadership public-policy
Public service motivation and interpersonal citizenship behavior in public organizations: Testing a preliminary model

A good deal of research has demonstrated how public service motivation (PSM) facilitates desirable organizational attitudes and behaviors such as job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and work effort. Other research has demonstrated that PSM predicts higher levels of social capital and altruistic behavior in society. Between these two strands of PSM research, there is a gap in knowledge about whether PSM matters to citizenship behavior internal to the organization. This article tests the direct and indirect relationship between individual levels of PSM and interpersonal citizenship behavior using a structural equation model. We also account for the effect of organizational environment by incorporating a measure of co-worker support. We find that PSM has a direct and positive effect on interpersonal citizenship behavior in public organizations, even when accounting for the significant role of co-worker support.

pa-theory
Putting the “public” back in public values research: Designing participation to identify and respond to values

This article seeks to put the “public” back in public values research by theorizing about the potential of direct citizen participation to assist with identifying and understanding public values. Specifically, the article explores eight participatory design elements and offers nine propositions about how those elements are likely to affect the ability of administrators to identify and understand public values with regard to a policy conflict. The article concludes with a brief discussion about potential directions for future research.

, pa-theory public-policy
Quantitative Intersectionality: Imperatives and Opportunities for Advancing Social Equity

Social equity is a pillar of public administration, yet its actualization remains elusive. The path forward to closing persistent social equity gaps requires the utilization of quantitative intersectionality in public administration. This article explores the literature related to quantitative intersectionality and the imperative for use in the scholarship and practices of public administration. To exemplify this concept in practice, we present a case study examining Vocational Rehabilitation performance data reports. Findings illustrate how quantitative intersectionality provides an opportunity to unpack overlapping identities for people with disabilities whose individual characteristics include historically oppressed race/ethnicity and gender identities. Findings assert the imperative for using quantitative intersectionality to achieve social equity for all.

, , , , , , , , discrimination equity foundations-of-pa gender inclusion intersectional public-administration race social-equity
QUEER(Y)ING Public Administration

Queer theory, understood here as a set of political/politicized practices and positions which resist normative knowledge and identities, has emerged as a theoretical perspective having important emancipatory and explanatory power in the arts, humanities and social sciences. Queer theory resists definition ipso facto, residing as it does within a postructuralist paradigm. It has not hitherto featured within the discipline of public administration and we argue the case for its utilisation in this field by first explicating the theory. Here we develop a way of using queer theory to analyse data, notably through the identification of the ‘moments’ of a queer theory analysis: identification of the norms that govern identity, analysis of what is allowable within those norms, and exploration of what is unspeakable. We demonstrate its use via an empirically‐based case study. The lessons from this exercise are then applied to some of our earlier work which we re‐read through a queer theory lens. This shows the great explanatory power offered by the theory, in that it can develop insights that previously have been inaccessible. We conclude with recommendations for its broader application and wider use within public administration.

org-theory
Race and Gender Representation in Presidential Appointments, SES, and GS Levels, During Clinton, Bush, and Obama Administrations

Achieving a representative bureaucracy that reflects the attitudes, values, and policy choices of women and racial minorities is imperative, as the gap in the representation of those groups in the federal workforce is growing. We examine to what extent female and minority representation in political appointments, Senior Executive Service (SES), and General Schedule (GS) 1-15 levels reflect presidents’ commitment to diversity. We use data from the U.S. Office of Personnel Management to compare the tenures of presidents William J. Clinton(1993 to 2000), George W. Bush (2001-2008), and Barack H. Obama (2009-2013), and examine the employment trends from 1993 to 2013.

, , , , , , , , , , , , , bias current-issues discrimination eeoc employment equity human-resources leaders public-administration public-affairs race representation representative-bureaucracy women
Race and social equity; A nervous area of government

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Racial Representation and Socialization in Bureaucratic Organizational Structures

Organizational scholars employing the theory of representative bureaucracy in their research have found that when public school teacher demographics mirror those of their students, teachers positively affect student performance. Little is known, however, about how organizational socialization affects positive representational effects on student outcomes. Teachers, however, are socialized differently into the organizational structure, largely through organizational social norms based on various professional aspects. This article analyzes the impact of professional socialization on representativeness by teachers’ credentials, employment status, and education levels. Using Los Angeles Unified School District (LAUSD) elementary school data during the 2012–2014 school years, results show that representational effects differ depending on dimensions of student outcomes, and socialization moderating effects vary on the relationship between teacher representation and performance outcomes…

, , , , equality equity racial-equity representation social-justice
Rainbow Research: Challenges and Recommendations for Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity and Expression (SOGIE) Survey Design

A growing number of people around the world identify, in some way, as Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Queer (LGBTQ+); yet, these voices are noticeably absent from nonprofit research. To address issues of equity and the historic marginalization of LGBTQ+ people both societally and in the nonprofit sector, this manuscript seeks to answer the following questions: Why is it important to include sexual orientation and gender identity and expression (SOGIE) survey questions in nonprofit surveys? What are best practices for including SOGIE survey questions in nonprofit research? We present LGBTQ+ inclusive research strategies and suggested questions for inclusive SOGIE survey design. Though this article focuses primarily on surveying LGBTQ+ populations, it can also be instructive for general population surveys.

, , , , , , civil-rights current-issues equity lgbt lgbtq nonprofit research
Reckoning With Race and Gender in Public Administration and Public Policy: A Substantive Social Equity Turn

Promoting race-aware and gender-aware scholarship is essential for giving substance to social equity research. This review and introduction provides an account of one such initiative to promote race and gender scholarship through collaboration between Public Administration Review (PAR), and the Consortium of Race and Gender Scholars (CORGES), and introduces the PAR Race and Gender Symposium. CORGES is an informal group of scholars motivated by the pressing need to address issues of racial justice and gender justice in public administration and public policy scholarship. This PAR symposium is based on the CORGES inaugural conference, held virtually in September 2020. Conference organizers, with the help of Editor-in-Chief Jeremy Hall, devised and oversaw a thoughtful and detailed plan to provide developmental feedback before papers were submitted to PAR’s standard peer review process. The symposium is comprised of 14 research articles and 2 viewpoint contributions. In addition to describing symposium contributions, this review provides an account of CORGES origins and its ongoing intellectual and normative commitments on furthering inquiry on racializing and gendering, while also elaborating on the idea of everydayness of scholarly activism. CORGES, with a recently expanded board of advisors committed to centering public administration scholarship on race and gender, as well its intersection with other markers of oppression, continues to support academic research and public outreach on race and gender scholarship.

, , , , equity gender public-administration race social-equity
Representation of lesbians and gay men in federal, state, and local bureaucracies

Using a 5% sample of the 2000 Census, we present the first estimates of the percentages of federal, state, and local government employees who are lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB). For each state, we estimate that percentage not only for its total state and local government workforce but also for three occupations where active representation of LGB interests may be the most important: managers, teachers, and police. We then try to explain variation in LGB representation. Using states as units of analysis, we examine the effects of the LGB share of the labor force, gay rights laws, executive orders, and supportive public opinion on LGB representation. Using individual-level data, we examine whether differences in education, work experience, gender, race/ethnicity, and occupation explain differences between partnered LGBs and heterosexuals in probabilities of working for government.

, human-resources org-theory
Representative Bureaucracy Theory and the Implicit Embrace of Whiteness and Masculinity

Throughout much of representative bureaucracy literature, scholars have primarily focused on the representation of people seen as other in the professional workforce—people of color and women. However, whiteness and masculinity have been central to the development of public administration as a field of scholarship and practice. As a field, we have often avoided explicit discussions regarding the impact whiteness and masculinity. We argue that silences around race and gender have significant implications. Using representative bureaucracy as a frame, we seek to highlight how acknowledging whiteness and masculinity in our scholarship can help provide a more comprehensive understanding of race and gender in public administration.

, , , , , , , , , , , , , , african-american bias discrimination diversity employment equality gender gender-equity human-resources inclusion intersectional public-administration race relations representative-bureaucracy
Resistance or reinforcement? A critical discourse analysis of racism and anti-Blackness in public administration scholarship

This article identifies the ways that White supremacy manifests throughout the field of public administration in its research and scholarship. Through a critical discourse analysis of symposia over a period of 20 years (2000–2020) in three foremost public administration journals, this paper investigates the extent to which each journal either reinforces or resists systemic racism. Peer-reviewed journals serve as gatekeepers to advancing and shaping the direction of research; as such, symposia are a mechanism through which editors signal interest, create intellectual space, open dialogue in a particular research direction, and share editorial power with guest editors who either represent marginalized or hegemonic identities and positions. Our analysis reveals there is an opportunity to enhance race-consciousness, intentional anti-racist language, power-sharing, and resistance in future symposia. The article concludes by offering a path forward toward dismantling, reconciling, and repairing the entrenched, systemic, and historic racism and anti-Blackness in the field of public administration.

, , , equity racial-equity representation social-justice
Rethinking the administrative state through an intersectional framework

This article was inspired by the special invitation to the Minnowbrook 50th Anniversary Conference: Rethinking the Administrative State. Participants were asked to write a concept paper discussing a critical issue or topic public administration, as a field, must address. As the legitimacy of the administrative state is constantly being threatened by systems of domination that seek to marginalize people with intersecting identities, public administrators must be stewards of democracy and work on behalf of all citizens. This essay advocates for the adoption of an intersectional framework in public administration because such a frame provides administrators with the knowledge, skills, and tools to incorporate multiple perspectives and ideologies, embrace difference, and work toward finally securing fairness, justice, and equity for all.

, , , , current-issues ethics leadership public-policy social-equity
Shared workplace experiences of lesbian and gay police officers in the United Kingdom

The purpose of this paper is to explores the contemporary workplace experiences of
lesbian and gay officers who serve across the UK.
Using an online survey, the research asked lesbian and gay
officers to share their experiences in law enforcement environments. Acknowledging the changing
climate in many law enforcement environments, this respondents here were asked to focus on both
positive and negative experiences in the workplace.
Findings – The responses of 243 police officers revealed that lesbian and gay officers face barriers to
equal employment opportunities similar to those faced by women and other minorities in law
enforcement, but lesbian officers appear to experience and witness lower levels of discrimination than
gay male police officers. Attitudinal bias against lesbian and gay officers remains a significant problem
in the force. Lesbian officers report feelings of tokenism at higher levels than gay male police officers.
Future research endeavors should analyze any differences
between the experiences of different lesbians and gay men at different levels of visibility within law
enforcement, including “out” and “closeted” officers. Research about when officers come out as lesbian
or gay – during training, on the force, after they retire – would be insightful in understanding officers’
perceptions.
The research suggests that police departments in the UK have made good
strides in opening the law enforcement workforce, but continue to face on-going challenges in creating
fair, diverse, and representative work environments for lesbian and gay officers. Specifically, agencies
should review policies where supervisor have discretion over the employment-related actions. By not
meetings the challenges of a more diverse workplace, agencies risk lower job satisfaction, and
decreased police effectiveness, especially on community policing environments.

, , case-studies human-resources social-equity
Social enterprise self-employment programs; A two-dimensional human capital investment strategy

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to introduce social enterprise self-employment programs (SEPs) as a two-dimensional human capital investment strategy that can potentially advance economic development. Design/methodology/approach – SEPs are frequently utilized as a tool for increasing economic self-sufficiency in poor communities. Literature discussing the use of commercial enterprise SEPs to increase economic development highlights the potential for creating the similar programs geared toward creating social enterprises. Human capital theory is used to illustrate how social enterprise SEPs can foster human capital, a predictor of economic growth and development. Examples of existing social enterprise SEPs are discussed to highlight how they can be designed. Cases of human capital-oriented
social enterprises are also used to outline different business forms social enterprise SEPs can help create. Findings – This general review paper suggests that social enterprise SEPs can be a sound two-dimensional human capital investment strategy. It argues that social enterprise SEPs can train aspiring social entrepreneurs to create businesses than subsequently foster human capital in their local communities. Research limitations/implications – This paper introduces the concept of social enterprise SEPs, opening up a new area of research for scholars to explore. Researchers should examine participant and
organizational factors of existing social enterprise SEPs to assess their impact, as literature has linked them to success rates of commercial SEPs. Practical implications – This paper emphasizes the need for SEPs to offer task-related training as opposed to general business training to prepare social entrepreneurs in effort to run successful social enterprises. Originality/value – The concept of social enterprise SEPs is new, and literature pertaining to it is scarce. This paper introduces them as a tool for attending to community problems while equipping
future generations of social entrepreneurs with the skills to create social enterprises.

human-resources
Social equity in the new 21st-century America: A case for transgender competence within public affairs graduate programs

This paper focuses on the importance of transgender education in public affairs programs, particularly as its students prepare to enter an increasingly diverse workforce in the 21st century. The paper first connects transgender awareness and education to the social equity literature. To date, attention within the social equity literature has primarily focused on race/ethnicity and, to a lesser extent, on women. However, issues of gender identity and sexual orientation have largely been missing from the social equity dialogue. This paper aims to fill the void. Next, the paper examines the transgender movement as a means to eliminate transgender oppression from the workplace. The paper also includes a survey conducted with 26 University of Vermont public affairs graduate students and 68 undergraduate students across disciplines also enrolled at the university. The surveys revealed attitudes about transgender citizens and their rights. The paper concludes with tangible strategies for working with transgender organizations and infusing transgender education into the public affairs curriculum.

, , human-resources org-theory social-equity
Social vulnerability and equity: The disproportionate impact of COVID-19

As the architect of racial disparity, racism shapes the vulnerability of communities. Socially vulnerable communities are less resilient in their ability to respond to and recover from natural and human‐made disasters compared with resourced communities. This essay argues that racism exposes practices and structures in public administration that, along with the effects of COVID‐19, have led to disproportionate infection and death rates of Black people. Using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Social Vulnerability Index, the authors analyze the ways Black bodies occupy the most vulnerable communities, making them bear the brunt of COVID‐19’s impact. The findings suggest that existing disparities exacerbate COVID‐19 outcomes for Black people. Targeted universalism is offered as an administrative framework to meet the needs of all people impacted by COVID‐19.

, , equity race social-vulnerability
Some Parents Survive and Some Don’t: The Army and the Family as “Greedy Institutions”

The military and the family are “greedy institutions” that require the full attention of their members. Being aware of the tension between work and family, the United States military has developed family support policies that are more generous than legally required to ensure personnel readiness. However, family formation remains a major obstacle for recruitment, retention, and integration of women. Using administrative data, this research shows that fathers were more likely to leave prematurely for family reasons than childless men, particularly among non-Hispanic Black and American Indian/Alaska Native men. However, women who gave birth while in service were much less likely to leave for work–family reasons than childless women, while the same could not be said for women who joined as mothers and had no additional children. The results reflect the gendered logic of the organization and the narrow conceptualization of work–family conflict, both of which perpetuate gender-role stereotypes.

, , , , , , , , , , african-american bias employment equality gender leadership military race stereotypes women workplace-discrimination
Some Parents Survive and Some Don’t: The Army and the Family as “Greedy Institutions”

The military and the family are “greedy institutions” that require the full attention of their members. Being aware of the tension between work and family, the United States military has developed family support policies that are more generous than legally required to ensure personnel readiness. However, family formation remains a major obstacle for recruitment, retention, and integration of women. Using administrative data, this research shows that fathers were more likely to leave prematurely for family reasons than childless men, particularly among non-Hispanic Black and American Indian/Alaska Native men. However, women who gave birth while in service were much less likely to leave for work-family reasons than childless women, while the same could not be said for women who joined as mothers and had no additional children. The results reflect the gendered logic of the organization and the narrow conceptualization of work–family conflict, both of which perpetuate gender-role stereotypes.

, , , , , discrimination equity gender policy stereotypes women
States, Employers, and Gender Equality

How do states impact whether employers provide work-family benefits like childcare and paid family leave, especially in national contexts of low social policy spending? What out- comes for women’s professional advancement and gender equality more broadly should we expect from these interventions? And what does public opinion tell us about what people think employers ought to be doing privately that the state is not? I explore these questions in this three-paper dissertation.

, , employment gender-equity public-administration
Stepping up to the plate: Making social equity a priority in public administration’s troubled times

The United States is built on and reinforced by exploitation and oppression, especially the genocide “of Native Americans, and the theft of their lands, and the extensive enslavement of Africans” (Feagin, 2006, p. 2). The highest objective of public service is to improve people’s lives, and yet, the U.S. has created policies and programs benefiting white people and disadvantaging Black people and other people of color.

, , , equity public-policy representation social-justice
Structural Advocacy Organizations and Intersectional Outcomes: Effects of Women’s Police Stations on Female Homicides

By introducing the concept of “structural advocacy organizations,” this study theorizes and tests the boundary conditions within which organizations designed to protect the rights of disenfranchised groups promote structural changes at the intersection of gender and race. We test these claims on Brazil’s “women’s police stations,” a type of structural advocacy organization with greater female representation on staff and with specialized procedures and an institutional mandate to address violence against women. The analysis indicates that homicides are lower among the population of women in municipalities which have women’s police stations. However, within this group, homicides committed against women who self-identify as “black” and “brown” are lower only in municipalities that are characterized by high levels of female education and in metropolitan areas with infrastructure development. The results suggest that improving intersectional outcomes for women who are disenfranchised on race requires complementary policies and institutional mandates to address racialized violence.

, , , , , , , , advocacy gender gender-equity human-resources intersectional police police-behavior policy women
Systematic thinking for social action

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, , leadership org-theory social-equity
The difference that women make: Government performance and women-led agencies

Empirical research on the difference that gender makes is sparse. This study is the first step toward providing evidence that agencies led by women perform better than those led by men. Using the Federal Employee Viewpoint Survey (FEVS) data, this study examines the research question: Are women improving federal government agency performance? Preliminary results indicate that they do. The broader goal of social justice frames the discussion of findings.

, , , , , , , case-studies current-issues leadership org-theory practitioner-policy-ex public-policy research-methods social-equity
The ethics of dissent: Managing guerilla government

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, , ethics leadership pa-theory
The future of women in public administration

The first symposium on women in public administration was published in 1976 and focused on three central topics: discrimination against, underrepresentation of, and underutilization of women in public service. Analyses of why conditions of discrimination and underutilization existed, as well as remedies to these challenges, were the crux of the 1976 symposium. Over four decades later, these issues are still pressing and continue to dominate the conversation surrounding women in public administration in the United States. The renewed and continued focus on equal pay, paid family leave, the absence of women in key leadership positions, women’s health care options, and reproductive rights remain center stage in the national policy arena, including the presidential debates. Internationally, gender parity was a priority agenda item during the 2016 Economic Forum, where only 18% of the participants present for a discussion about the “state of the world” were women. As a discipline, public administration continues to explore the ongoing challenges and progress of women with a degree of consensus on the common obstacles and work to be done for continued progress. However, what the key challenges and opportunities are for women in the 21st century, and how we can rethink long-standing issues from diverse perspectives are now pressing questions demanding scholarly attention. This symposium highlights what is missing from the conversation and how, in the field of public administration, we can be leaders on these topics.

, , , , , , , case-studies current-issues pa-theory practitioner-policy-ex public-policy research-methods social-equity teaching-pa
The giving of orders

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, leadership org-theory
The Impact of Demographic Composition of Social Networks on Perceived Inclusion in the Workplace

Inclusion in the workplace is defined as the extent to which individuals perceive that they are part of significant processes in organizations. This article explores the determinants of workplace inclusion by asking: How does the demographic composition of social networks inside and outside of the workplace affect perceived inclusion in the workplace? We apply literature on social identity theory and social network theory to develop and test hypotheses on professional sub-network demographic composition using the linear regression analysis on data from the 2011 National Science Foundation–funded national survey of academic faculty on work environment and careers in US universities. Among other results, we find that perceived inclusion is explained by the interactions between race, gender, and demographic composition of professional networks. Findings provide new insights for the management of diversity in the workplace.

, , inclusion social-construction workplace-discrimination
The Importance of Social Movements and the Intersection of Social Equity: Marriage Equality and RACING Towards Justice

The social movements of the I960’s and 1970’s have had an irreversible positive impact on the wellbeing of all citizens in the 21st century United States. It can also be argued that social equity as a subfield of public administration and policy grew out of the I960’s though there is no definite way of knowing what the framers of the subfield were thinking or how they were influenced by the social movements of the time. Still, it is a reasonable assumption to believe that the framers were at least marginally influenced by the changing times. Therefore, social equity is used as a backdrop for social movements in the paper, which analyzes their importance for a modern day society. Specially, the social movements addressed in the paper include, the civil rights movement, women’s rights movement, the Internet Movement and the LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender) movement. The paper then turns its attention to the importance of race and the intersection of the same sex marriage debate. The paper asserts that African Americans and the Hispanic communities have been vilified and accused of being an alleged impediment to the progress of same sex marriage, especially regarding Proposition 8 in California. The paper presents evidence to the contrary of this well believed myth. Finally the paper concludes with clear and concise recommendations for addressing the issues mentioned in the paper.

, , lgbt social-equity social-movement
The Intersectionality of Deservingness for State Support

Studies of the ramifications of client race and ethnicity for bureaucrats’ judgments treat minority status as homogenous. Yet, individual identity does not boil down to race or ethnicity. Members of racial and ethnic minority groups likely vary in their experiences and capacity to overcome the negative sentiments and stereotypes that burden their inherited group. To transcend unidimensional explanations, we combine Van Oorschot’s deservingness framework and a gendered lens to study how the intersection of group identity and gender, as well as individuals’ work history, co-shape bureaucrats’ categorization of clients. Empirically, we analyze Israeli professionals’ categorization of applicants for state benefits, comparing their assessments of men and women of three social groups: the Jewish majority, ultra-orthodox Jews, and Muslims. Interpreting the empirical findings, we offer that underlying the effect of applicants’ group demographics are perceived cultural affinity to the majority and social contributions that vary with gender.

, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , benefits bias cultural-competency discrimination diversity equality gender gender-equity human-resources inclusion intersectional public-administration race racial-equity relations social-construction stereotypes women
The Intersectionality of Deservingness For State Support

Studies of the ramifications of client race and ethnicity for bureaucrats’ judgments treat minority status as homogenous. Yet, individual identity does not boil down to race or ethnicity. Members of racial and ethnic minority groups likely vary in their experiences and capacity to overcome the negative sentiments and stereotypes that burden their inherited group. To transcend unidimensional explanations, we combine Van Oorschot’s deservingness framework and a gendered lens to study how the intersection of group identity and gender, as well as individuals’ work history, co-shape bureaucrats’ categorization of clients. Empirically, we analyze Israeli doctors’ categorization of applicants for state incapacity benefits, comparing their medical assessments of men and women of three social groups: the Jewish majority, Ultra-orthodox Jews, and Muslims. Interpreting the empirical findings, we offer that underlying the effect of applicants’ group demographics are perceived cultural affinity to the majority and social contributions that vary with gender.

, , , cultural-competency race social-equity stereotypes
The nonprofit industrial complex and trans resistance

Trans politics are gaining visibility and momentum and, increasingly, trans activists are forming projects and organizations focused on promoting political change. Given this context, this article examines how critiques of the nonprofit industrial complex might be incorporated into trans political analysis and how they could inform this moment of trans political institutionalization. Taking tools and lessons from antiracist and feminist scholars and activists and recognizing widespread critique of the co-optation of the lesbian and gay rights movement by neoliberalism, this article highlights alternatives to traditional nonprofit structures. The authors provide an in-depth look at 1 trans organization that employs a collective governance model and encourages the leadership of trans people of color, offering it as a potential model for emerging trans organizations.

, leadership org-theory
The Racialized Dimensions of Contemporary Immigration and Border Enforcement Policies and Practices

Immigration policies in the United States have not been explicitly race-based since the mid-20th Century. Nevertheless, the effects of contemporary US immigration enforcement practices are highly racialized. The further development of a “race conscious” approach in public policy and administration will help expand our understanding of the racialized dimensions of these policies and practices. Specifically, I call attention to how current approaches to immigration control disproportionately negatively affect non-White immigrants from the so-called “Global South,” contribute to racialization processes, and perpetuate racial inequality in the United States. Examples include the ways that undocumented immigration status is leading to the emergence of a new “underclass” in the United States, the separation and dissolution of Latino families through mass deportation, and the systematic criminalization of non-White undocumented immigrants from Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, and El Salvador.

, , , , , , , , current-issues discrimination diversity public-administration public-policy race racial-equity representation representative-bureaucracy
The rise of transgender-inclusive laws: How well are municipalities implementing supportive nondiscrimination public employment policies?

Whereas efforts that prohibit employment discrimination based on factors such as race or sexual orientation require certain organizational changes, creating a transgender-inclusive workplace requires organizational changes that include personnel, policy, legal, and medical issues unique to transgender people. At present, it is not clear whether communities are actually implementing these organizational changes, even after adopting transgender-inclusive nondiscrimination laws. This research project surveyed 74 municipalities with transgender-inclusive nondiscrimination employments laws, in order to assess and better understand the state of transgender-inclusive public workplaces. The initial results of the survey suggest that although innovation continues to increase, implementation and enforcement remain low, affecting managers’ and employees’ abilities to operate in a transgender-inclusive environment. Recommendations are made to improve implementation and enforcement of transgender-inclusive nondiscrimination laws.

human-resources
The Role of Gender in Government and Nonprofit Workplaces: An Experimental Analysis of Rule Compliance and Supervisor Trust

The underrepresentation of women in leadership positions persists. Existing research examines barriers women face in climbing organizational hierarchies, but we know less about women who break past the glass ceiling. Once women obtain supervisory positions, do they face additional hurdles in managing employees? Specifically, how does gender, gender congruence, and rule formalization influence employee rule compliance and trust? Using a survey experiment across both government and nonprofit contexts, we find that both men and women are more likely to trust men managers, but this gender gap is mitigated when rules are written. Gender congruence plays a role for rule compliance, where both men and women are more compliant when the supervisor matches their gender, while gender congruence is only a significant factor for enhancing trust for men. The findings advance role incongruence theory and have implications for the challenges women leaders face in terms of trust and rule following.

, , , , gender gender-equity leadership nonprofit women
The Role of Gender in Government and Nonprofit Workplaces: An Experimental Analysis of Rule Compliance and Supervisor Trust

The underrepresentation of women in leadership positions persists. Existing research examines barriers women face in climbing organizational hierarchies, but we know less about women who break past the glass ceiling. Once women obtain supervisory positions, do they face additional hurdles in managing employees? Specifically, how does gender, gender congruence, and rule formalization influence employee rule compliance and trust? Using a survey experiment across both government and nonprofit contexts, we find that both men and women are more likely to trust men managers, but this gender gap is mitigated when rules are written. Gender congruence plays a role for rule compliance, where both men and women are more compliant when the supervisor matches their gender, while gender congruence is only a significant factor for enhancing trust for men. The findings advance role incongruence theory and have implications for the challenges women leaders face in terms of trust and rule following.

, , , , , , , , , bias employment equality gender gender-equity human-resources leaders leadership social-construction social-equity
The rugged individualist club

This paper explores the impacts of the dominant Hobbesian ontology and the Protestant ethic on individual experience within the United States, connecting the ideas of “disaster capitalism” and the “myth of the Individual” to explore the ways in which individual citizens are isolated, alienated, and subjugated. The paper identifies forms of isolation experienced by individuals in public administration, anti-poverty policies, and popular methods of citizen participation. Playing off the notion of “hollow government,” the paper argues that the Hobbesian ontology of fear and othering, along with Lockean Individualism, creates “hollow Individuals” by negating opportunities for interpersonal exchange of ideas. The paper suggests that the field of public administration can begin to counteract the paradox of Individualism, in part, by following Stivers’ (1994) model of the “listening bureaucrat.”

, , , ethics leadership pa-theory social-equity
The Slippery Slope: Struggling for Equity in the Academy in the Era of #MeToo

The complexity of the sexual harassment language of the #MeToo movement creates discontinuities that maymuddy intended communications. Yet understanding this language provides a fuller picture of the experiences that women face, Gender harassment has persisted in the workplace despite long-staning antidiscrimination policies, perhaps because of a unversal failure to recognize all forms of it- some of which are more pervasive and common than sexual abuse. This article considers the ability of the academy to affect sexual harassment in public administration. It discusses the implications of gender harassment, the least recognized form of sexual harassment, and makes recommendations for overcoming gender barriers in the academy and in practice. Evidence- based guidance for advacnging women in the academy may create more equitable and just spaces for teaching and learning. Public administration classrooms and scholarship represent critical opportunities to recognize patterns of organizations practice and systematically redress gender harassment in the workplace.

, , , civil-rights gender-equity public-administration public-policy
The unbureaucratic personality

After 60 years of scholarship on the rule-bound bureaucratic personality, this article turns attention to the unbureaucratic personality. Identified by a willingness to bend rules, the unbureaucratic personality is thought to be influenced by individual and workplace attributes. The individual attributes investigated in this article include nonconformity, risk propensity, and public service commitment, all of which are expected to stimulate the unbureaucratic personality. Workplace attributes include formalization and centralization, which are expected to suppress the unbureaucratic personality, and red tape, which is expected to trigger it. These hypotheses are tested using mail survey data collected from employees of four cities in a midwestern state. The results of ordered probit modeling of the data suggest that nonconformity and risk taking increase the unbureaucratic personality, as do red tape and centralized workplaces. By contrast, the unbureaucratic personality appears to be diminished by public service commitment and workplace formalization. The implications of these results for the normative aspects of rule bending are discussed.

, , leadership org-theory pa-theory
The Unfortunate Misunderstanding of Miss Follett

Mary Follett was both a woman in public service in myriad roles from social worker to presidential advisor and a female public intellectual giving voice to what would later be called a feminist perspective. Based on a forthcoming book, this paper summarizes the fullness of Follett’s thinking and discusses the manner in which she is frequently misinterpreted in the literature, arguing that these misunderstandings are due to a lack of awareness of, or ability to grasp, her underlying relational process ontology. Misinterpretations in both the management and public administration literature are considered, ending with a call for scholars in both specializations to reconsider their interpretations from a more in-depth understanding of her work.

, , civil-rights public-administration women
The Untold Stories: Women on the Front-Lines of Environmental Regulation

“The interactions and relationships between front-line regulators and the regulated impact the implementation of environmental policy. Much of the existing research to date investigates the regulatory enforcement styles of regulators or the compliance motivations of firms. It is equally important to consider the role of women and their experiences as front-line workers. This qualitative research is one of the first to provide insight into the untold stories of women on the front-lines of environmental regulation. Through an examination of original interview data from 25 environmental regulators with the Danish Environmental Protection Agency (DEPA) and Montana Department of Environmental Quality (MT DEQ), the findings suggest steps must be taken to ensure the voices of women on the front-lines of environmental regulation are no longer overlooked. Instead, we recognize how their day-to-day experiences impact our understanding of the implementation of environmental regulations.”

, , , , , , , , current-issues discrimination equality equity gender gender-equity social-equity women workplace-discrimination
The young and restless: Generation Y in the nonprofit workforce

The ability of nonprofit organizations to attract and retain the next generation of its workforce will play an integral role in the growth and vitality of the sector. Management literature provides a number of suggestions for nonprofit managers emphasizing a focus on enhancing non-compensation related job characteristics in order to attract and retain a young workforce. Yet, this literature largely ignores survey research which indicates that Generation Y employees value compensation and non-compensation related characteristics differently than previous generations. Before management changes are proposed and implemented by nonprofit managers, we must first understand how the nonprofit sector compensates Generation Y employees. This study enhances our understanding of wage differentials by using data from the 2001-2006 American Community Survey’s to examine a sample of approximately 178,000 young, educated employees.

, leadership public-policy
Thinking outside the box: Using multisector approaches to address the wicked problem of homelessness among LGBTQ youth

According to national statistics there are somewhere between 1.6 and 2.8 million homeless youth in the United States. An inordinate percentage of these homeless youth identify as LGBTQ. The causes of homelessness among this group as well as the needed services are multifaceted and complex, making it what many would refer to as a wicked problem. This article argues that in order to address the wicked problem of homelessness among LGBTQ youth, collaborations across the public, private, and nonprofit sectors must occur. Examples of such collaborations are offered for consideration of others looking to address the issue.

, , , , , , , case-studies current-issues ethics human-resources pa-theory practitioner-policy-ex public-policy social-equity
This for That: What EEOC Trends Reveal About Representative Bureaucracy

Representative bureaucracy is one of the mechanisms used to achieve representative democracy. This article assesses how bureaucratic representation affects public access to administrative remedies, a recourse linked with social equity in public service organizations. Representative bureaucracy theory is applied to 14 years of Equal Employment Opportunity Commission demographics and outcomes data. The analysis asks whether passive representation trends parallel trends in active representation outcomes, using longitudinal workforce, charge, suit, and resolution data. Results suggest trends in client driven outcomes (charges) were consistent with passive representation, while organizational outcomes (suits and resolutions) outpaced disability representation but fell short of racial and gender representation. The trend analysis findings, which offer timely insights into the effects of human resource management, suggests organizational priorities and processes affect representation more than previously thought.

, , , discrimination eeoc organizational-equity representative-bureaucracy
Three steps forward, two steps backward: The status of women’s integration into public management

Is there symmetry between women and men in public management in terms of opportunity, power, and numbers? Mary Guy examines two decades of affirmative action initiatives. She finds the number of women in decision-making positions disproportionately low when compared to their numbers in the public work force. Women’s integration into the fabric of American governance has been marked by surges of progress followed by periods of quiescence. Her article compares the status of women to that of men in career public management positions and argues that women have a long way to go before they will reach parity.

, , , ethics pa-theory public-policy social-equity
Time is on my side: A framework to examine when unemployed individuals volunteer

In light of high unemployment and declining volunteer rates, this study examines the complex relationship between time, employment, and volunteering. Are unemployed people more likely to volunteer due to newfound time or to obtain some benefit? Alternatively, are the unemployed less likely to volunteer due to their loss of social ties or feelings of insecurity? A framework tying together four competing theories—opportunity cost, exchange, social ties, and attachment—into positive and negative influences is put forth and tested using pooled U.S. data from 2003 to 2013. The duration of unemployment emerges as a key factor, where volunteering decreases over time. Findings suggest organizations should recruit volunteers from untapped and under-represented groups, especially because the supply of volunteers is not endless. For example, unemployed volunteers devote more time but are less likely to receive an invitation to volunteer. Dedicated individuals may not volunteer simply because no one asks them

human-resources
Toward a feminist perspective in public administration theory

The field of public administration currently lacks a feminist perspective, i.e., one that problematizes women’s historical exclusion from public administration theory and raises topics and questions neglected as a result. Four important issues are suggested as areas where a feminist perspective might offer fresh insights: The question of administrative knowledge; the model of the ideal public servant; the nature of administrative discretion; and the dimensions of the administrative state.

, public-policy social-equity
Toward a More Ethical Approach for Countering Disinformation

I
n late January 2020, the sensationalist Russianpolitician Vladimir Zhirinovsky made headlinesin Russian media when he falsely proclaimed thecoronavirus was a ploy by U.S. pharmaceuticalcompanies to profit from Chinese suffering. Zhirinovskyfirst made his provocative statement on the MoscowTalks radio station on January 27th. Moscow Today andother official Russian media channels quickly repeatedthe comment. By the following week global news outletsbegan reporting on the statement. For longtime Russia-watchers, the Russian state media’s use of Zhirinovsky’sdisinformation has been eerily similar to Soviet effortsto blame AIDS on the United States – a KGB effort known as Operation Infektion. Unlike the Cold War though, today millions of social media users—wittingly or unwittingly—ballooned the conspiracy theory out of control before governments could formulate and coordinate a response. To date, investigators have reported that the disinformation about coronavirus has become intractable, even for social media platform owners .This recent event adds to a growing corpus of evidence about social media-based state-sponsored disinformation activities. In late 2019, Oxford University and the Computational Propaganda Research Project reported, “Evidence of organized social media manipulation campaigns taking place is present in70 countries, up from 48 countries in 2018 and 28countries in 2017.” For example, over 140,000,000 users interacted with Internet Research Agency (IRA) content on Facebook and Instagram between 2015-2017. Andin August 2019, Twitter suspended “936 accounts originating from within the People’s Republic of China.” According to Twitter, “these accounts were deliberately and specifically attempting to sow political discord in Hong Kong,” and represented “the most active portions of a larger, spammy network of approximately 200,000accounts.”

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Toward nonprofit organization reform in the voluntary spirit: Lessons from the internet

This article identifies two models of nonprofit organization roles: the economic model, which emphasizes business-like methods, and the voluntary spirit model, which emphasizes participation and membership. Highly visible, professional nonprofit organizations must constantly struggle with the extent to which they are to emphasize their role as efficient and competitive economic actors or their role as institutions important to our democracy. After years of shifting toward the economic model, professional nonprofits may be ripe for reform. Simultaneously, they are confronting and engaging with the Internet. This article draws on examples of health-based citizen cyber-organizations to derive lessons for how professional nonprofit organizations can recapture their voluntary spirit generally and places an emphasis on participation and membership. Also derived are specific lessons on how professional nonprofits can use cyber-strategies to do so.

, , , case-studies current-issues org-theory pa-theory
Transformational Public Service

Everyone who aspires to more effective public service should read this book. It provides a compelling antidote to the managerial focus of theory and practice in public administration. Written with the aim of inspiring and rekindling a mission for public service, Transformational Public Service weaves together theory and stories from actual practice to show that public service can (and does) advance the goals of democracy, inclusiveness, and social and economic justice. Eight practitioners from government and non-governmental organizations at all levels – from the street to the executive office – tell their personal stories of transformational public service. Theory, poetry, and popular culture references are woven around the stories. Both students and practitioners will discover new ways of thinking in this book that will enable them to transform their own administrative practices. As the authors note in their prologue: “As we listened to these stories, we heard people say that public service can be and is transformational (transforms institutions, practices, and people’s lives and experiences) in ways that serve democracy, engagement, and social and economic justice. The public service they practice is collaborative, humanistic, emancipatory, inclusive, and diverse.”

, , , , , , , , , case-studies current-issues ethics foundations-of-pa leadership pa-theory practitioner-policy-ex public-policy social-equity teaching-pa
Transgender identities and public policy in the United States: The relevance for public administration

This article examines an emerging issue within the field of governance, the intersection of public policy with transgender identity. It is important that administrators better understand this issue given the lack of consistency in the current policy framework. This article addresses transgender identity’s intersection with employment law, marriage, hate crimes, and the current legal framework for sex reassignment in the United States. The article also addresses how transgender identity contrasts with gay and lesbian identities with regard to public policy. Given widespread bias against this population, administrators are called to ensure that these individuals receive equal and equitable policy treatment.

, , pa-theory public-policy social-equity
Trends and gaps: A meta-review of representative bureaucracy

The representative bureaucracy theoretical framework explores the link between bureaucrats’ social and demographic characteristics and their likelihood to take actions that benefit citizens with whom they share identities. This meta-review analyzes 96 peer-reviewed representative bureaucracy journal articles to explore how the theoretical framework is described and applied and to track the contextual development of representative bureaucracy over time. Despite how far the field has come in connecting bureaucratic identity to normative policy outcomes, we find that the application of the theoretical framework is operationalized using a narrow set of shared identities (race and gender). In addition, we conclude that representative bureaucracy has been applied in limited geographic, methodological, and policy areas. Our article argues that the absence of studies that focus on intersectional identities, different geographic and policy contexts, and more qualitative and mixed methods impedes our understanding of the link between passive and active representation.

representative-bureaucracy
Truth and Reconciliation as a Model for Change in Response to #MeToo

The U.S. criminal justice system is designed to handle extreme cases of sexual misconduct, but the system has not adapted well to less extreme (but no less important) sexually inappropriate behaviors. As our understanding of sexual misconduct and impropriety evolves, the need for a new system of accountability seems apparent. The authors call for a new approach to providing justice for survivors/victims: the adoption of a truth and reconciliation model. This model involves providing a public forum for survivors/victims to testify to the events of their victmization and for offenders to admit previous wrongdoing, take responsibility, and ask forgiveness. While it is not appropriate for handling illegal behaviors, a truth and reconciliation model would be ideal for incidents that are not illegal but violate our evolving social norms.

, gender-equity public-policy
Understanding public awareness of nonprofit organizations: exploring the awareness–confidence relationship

Public confidence has often been viewed as a critical indicator of legitimacy within the nonprofit sector. Indeed, confidence is believed to be among one of the sector’s most important commodities. Surveys, however, have shown that the public does not always have much confidence in the performance of nonprofit organizations. Although this lack of confidence is certainly concerning, few studies have assessed whether the public actually has any awareness of what nonprofit organizations are, and no studies have examined the personal characteristics associated with more (or less) nonprofit awareness. Thus, by using individual‐level data from a survey of public attitudes toward nonprofits in San Diego County (n = 1002), the purpose of this study was to explore how individual characteristics relate to nonprofit awareness and to examine the extent to which awareness of the sector influences confidence in the performance of nonprofit organizations. The findings from the study indicate that nonprofit awareness varies by several individual‐level characteristics—with many of those likely to be the most dependent on nonprofit services being the least aware of the sector. The findings also indicate that awareness of the sector is the most significant predictor of confidence in the performance of nonprofits.

, org-theory public-policy
Understanding, ownership, or resistance: Explaining persistent gender inequality in public services

Gender Inequality persists in the public services in many Organizations for Economic Cooperation and Development countries, despite decades or policy and strategic initiatives…

, , , , equality equity gender-equity representation social-justice
Utilizing Gender Diversity Initiatives at U.S. State Level Agencies

This exploratory research empirically examines the impact of the utilization of diversity organizational practices on the career progression of women to executive positions in state-level government organizations in the United States. The design includes an online survey instrument sent to a purposive sample of 600 female administrative agency executives in 50 states. A standard OLS regression model tested the predictive power of diversity utilization practice variables on the dependent variable, career progression of women to upper level management. As hypothesized, women who utilized diversity initiatives offered by their organizations decreased the amount of time it took them to achieve executive-level status(B = – .243, p = .065). It is suggested that in order to guarantee that women, and particularly minority women, participate in the effective managing of public organizations – regulations, laws, procedures and policies must be advanced through utilization

, , , equity gender public-administration representative-bureaucracy
Weaponization of Wokeness: The Theater of Management and Implications for Public Administration

As we began writing this paper, there was no policy language about critical race theory. No burning books in states. The paper evolved as language and symbols evolved. We do not and cannot claim this is a total history of all signs and symbols associated with historical civil rights movements. Our focus in a snapshot of how the word “woke” moved—and continues to move—from its roots in the Black community to what is today a symbol-laden word easily weaponized because it lives in its own hyperreality.
There is an ongoing debate, situated in the education literature, regarding Marxism versus postmodernism as it relates to social justice. We do not have space here to detail the entire thread but can recommend Atkinson ( 2000; 2002) and Cole and Hill ( 1995).

, , , , , , , , pa-theory public-administration race racial-equity relations representation social-construction social-equity social-justice
What is patronage? A critical reexamination

Despite a long and storied history, patronage and the functions it plays in American politics and public administration are still very much a mystery. This paper examines how patronage has been used and understood in American political science and public administration. The author calls for a reexamination of the concept based on developments found in the field of anthropology. In an effort to generate future scholarship, the author introduces a typology of patronage styles based on this reexamination.

, , , , , , current-issues ethics foundations-of-pa leadership org-theory pa-theory public-policy
Whistleblowing Motivation and Gender: Vignette-Based Study in a Local Government

Public administration literature has been building more evidence about whistleblowing and gender, and whistleblowing and public service motivation. Yet, despite the well-developed theoretical argument of the socialization effect on public service motivation and gender, little effort has been undertaken to study their simultaneous relationships with whistleblowing. This study fills this gap suggesting that whistleblowing mechanisms for the public sector should allow no room for gender differences and should guarantee equal access to the procedure. A constant-variable-value vignette study conducted with 799 respondents from a large local government in Poland reveals strong gender effects, that overshadow previously supported positive association between public service motivation and corruption reporting. Namely, despite the confirmed positive association between PSM levels and whistleblowing intentions, highly public service motivated women are less inclined to report a misconduct of their supervisors than men. The socialization context relevant to the study location is discussed in the conclusion.

, , , , , equity gender gender-equity politics public-administration social-equity
White, Black, and Latina Female Victims in U.S. News: A Multivariate and Intersectional Analysis of Story Differences

Prior research suggests the media depict White female victims more sympathetically than their minority counterparts, yet no researcher has yet examined this proposition at the multivariate level. Moreover, prior research on media portrayals generally include White versus non-White or White versus Black comparisons, but no researcher has yet compared media accounts of White, Black, and Latina female victims. Based on critical race feminism, we expected news coverage of White, Black, and Latina victims to vary in key ways. We examined narratives at the bivariate and multivariate levels, and we contextualized findings with story excerpts. Stories about White female victims were more likely to contain sympathetic themes—such as themes of religiosity and reported media attention—and to result in overall sympathetic narratives compared to stories about minority victims, whereas overall narratives about Latina and Black female victims were often unsympathetic. Our findings align with the “ideal victim” stereotype and may help explain the differential treatment of White and minority female victims by the criminal justice system.

, , , , , bias-in-criminal-justice-system critical-race-theory feminist-theory police race stereotypes
Whiteness and masculinity in nonprofit organizations: Law, money, and institutional race and gender

Using an institutional framework and critical race and gender theories, this article argues that performances adopted by nonprofits to conform to the legal and economic realities of the sector benefit Whites and men. Economic and legal influences on nonprofits create pressures to conform to the institutions that organize society. Whiteness and Masculinity are two such institutions. After establishing theoretical propositions, the conclusion poses questions to aid in furthering research on Masculinity and Whiteness in nonprofits and undermine the forces frustrating race and gender equity in the nonprofit sector.

, human-resources org-theory
Why men and women want to leave? Turnover intent among public procurement officers

This study examines differences in turnover intent between men and women with the aim of building a better understanding of factors that contribute to disparities between the sexes and creating more useful recruitment and retention strategies. The study proposes a theoretical framework where personal, human capital, organizational, and structural/community factors contribute to the desire to change jobs. The focus here is on procurement officers as their role is critical in public sector organizations from the local to the federal level. They also are unique in that their skill set is transferable from one organization to another and procurement officers have relatively high opportunities to move both within and between organizations. The study finds that there are important differences in the drivers of turnover intent between men and women and that most differences lie in the personal, human capital, and organizational categories.

, , , employment gender human-resources turnover
Women and public administration: Theory and practice

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, , , , , , current-issues foundations-of-pa leadership org-theory pa-theory public-policy social-equity
Women governing: A global perspective

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Women in City Hall: Gender Dimensions of Managerial Values

In examining gender dimensions of managerial values, we account for alternative explanations. Specifically, we expect the organization and the profession to be powerful socializing forces that may have similar or larger influence on managerial values. Early public administration work found that bureaucratic organizations can take participants through a process of socialization where they adopt and internalize the central values of the organization (Denhardt, 1968).Organizational controls such as size, number of employees, department, and tenure with the organization are considered as a set of variables that could influence managerial values. Another competing theory is that of professional socialization being a significant influence on managerial values. In the area of professionalization, studies have found that educational and professional experiences can shape value preferences (Edwards, Nalbandian, and Wedel, 1981). Professional variables like MPA degree, membership in professional organization and a professionalism scale are included as explanatory variables. With the consideration of these professional and organizational factors, we question if gender still plays a part in managerial value importance? The data for this study come from Phase IV of the National Administrative Studies Project. The dataset includes United States senior local government managers in communities with populations over 50,000. These senior managers occupy key positions such as city manager, deputy/assistant city manager, public works director, parks and recreation director, planning director, budgeting and finance director. We use responses to how important specific values are to these managers when making decisions about public services for their departments. We expect that managerial value importance will differ amongst men and women even when controlling for professional and organizational factors. Preliminary findings support this hypothesis. We find men and women differ in value importance when making major decisions.

, , , , , employment equality equity gender women workplace-discrimination
Women in State Law Enforcement: An Exploratory Trend Analysis

Gender diversity in policing has never been more important than it is today. However, women in state law enforcement are the least noticeable and most underrepresented of all women in policing. Using data from the Law Enforcement Management and Administrative Statistics (LEMAS) surveys, this study examines gender diversity across the 49 primary state law enforcement agencies in the United States between 2000 and 2016. Although representation varies broadly across the states, the findings are mostly negative and suggest that women in state law enforcement have remained stagnant over the past two decades with very little improvement. This is important because scholarship must continue to bring attention to the underrepresentation of women in law enforcement, regardless of intergovernmental level, and monitor its progress.

, , , , , , current-issues employment equity gender police police-reform women
Work/Family Reconciliation Policies for the United States: Lessons from Abroad

Families in the U.S. and other industrialized countries are grappling with the twindilemmas of caring for children when all adults are in the workforce, and of achievinggender equality in the home and in the labor market. In U.S. policy debates, proposedsolutions to these dilemmas often force tradeoffs – to promote child well-being at theexpense of gender equality, or to support gender equality at the expense of children’stime with their parents. In this chapter we argue that government can help promotesolutions to work/family conflicts without tradeoffs through policies that support equal caregiving by mothers and fathers and that distribute the costs of childrearing more broadly. Such policies would allow mothers and fathers to care for their children during the critical first year of life while working for pay part-time or intermittently, to combinemore hours in employment with caregiving during later childhood, and to make use ofhigh quality substitute care during their working hours.

, , , , equity feminist-theory pa-theory pay policy
Yes We Can: Obama’s Election and the Sense of Inclusion and Job Satisfaction among Minority Federal Workers

The election of President Obama, the first African American president of the United States, was an historic and symbolically important event that may have influenced the workplace attitudes of minority federal workers, although this question has yet to be tested empirically. Using difference-in-differences analyses of data from the 2008 and 2010 Federal Employee Viewpoint Surveys, this study explores the influence of Obama’s election on minority employees’ sense of inclusion and job satisfaction in the Department of Education (DoEd) and the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD), the two federal agencies with the largest proportion of African American employees. The findings suggest that minority employees in the DoEd and HUD experienced a net increase in their sense of inclusion and job satisfaction after the presidential election. The effect size is small, however, and we found little evidence of an Obama effect across other federal agencies.

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